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Chapter 4 & 7 Product Design & Process Selection-Manufacturing • Typical Phases of Product Design Development • Concurrent Engineering • Designing for the Customer • QFD • Design for Manufacturability • Types of Processes • Process Flow Structures • Process Flow Design • Global Product Design and Manufacturing
What’s a Product? • Need-satisfying offering of an organization • Example • P&G does not sell laundry detergent • P&G sells the benefit of clean clothes • Customers buy satisfaction, not parts • May be a good or service
Typical Phases of Product Design Development • Concept Development • Product Planning • Product/Process Engineering • Pilot Production/Ramp-Up
Concurrent EngineeringDefined • Concurrent engineering • The simultaneous development of product design functions
Designing for the Customer Ideal Customer Product
Product Development Stages • Idea generation • Assessment of firm’s ability to carry out • Customer Requirements • Functional Specification • Product Specifications • Design Review • Test Market • Introduction to Market • Evaluation Scope of product development team Scope of design for manufacturability and value engineering teams
Quality Function Deployment • Identify customer wants • Identify how the good/service will satisfy customer wants • Relate customer wants to product hows • Identify relationships between the firm’s hows • Develop importance ratings • Evaluate competing products
Idea Generation Stage • Provides basis for entry into market • Sources of ideas • Market need (60-80%); engineering & operations (20%); technology; competitors; inventions; employees • Follows from marketing strategy • Identifies, defines, & selects best market opportunities
Identifies & positions key product benefits Stated in core benefits proposition (CBP) Example: Long lasting with more power (Sears’ Die Hard Battery) Identifies detailed list of product attributes desired by customer Focus groups or 1-on-1 interviews House of Quality Product Characteristics Customer Requirements Customer Requirements Stage
House of Quality Product Characteristics Customer Requirements Functional Specification Stage • Defines product in terms of how the product would meet desired attributes • Identifies product’s engineering characteristics • Example: printer noise (dB) • Prioritizes engineering characteristics • May rate product compared to competitors’
House of Quality Component Specifications Product Characteristics Product Specification Stage • Determines how product will be made • Gives product’s physical specifications • Example: Dimensions, material etc. • Defined by engineering drawing • Done often on computer • Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Quality Function Deployment • Product design process using cross-functional teams • Marketing, engineering, manufacturing • Translates customer preferences into specific product characteristics • Involves creating 4 tabular ‘Matrices’ or ‘Houses’ • Breakdown product design into increasing levels of detail
Few Successes Number 1750 Market req. Design review, Testing, Intro. 1000 Functional spec. Product spec. Successful product 500 100 1 25 Development Stage Source: Heizer & Render, 5th edition
Importance of New Products Percent of Sales from New Products Position of Firm in Industry Source: Heizer & Render, 5th edition
Designing for the Customer:Value Analysis/Value Engineering (VA/VE) • Achieve equivalent or better performance at a lower cost while maintaining all functional requirements defined by the customer.
Value Engineering Example 3 Pieces 1 Piece $ .22 ea. $ .10 ea.
Design for Manufacturability • Traditional Approach • Concurrent Engineering
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly • Greatest improvements related to DFMA arise from simplification of the product by reducing the number of separate parts: • 1. During the operation of the product, does the part move relative to all other parts already assembled? • 2. Must the part be of a different material or be isolated from other parts already assembled? • 3. Must the part be separate from all other parts to allow the disassembly of the product for adjustment or maintenance?
Types of Processes • Conversion - • Fabrication - • Assembly - • Testing -
Process Flow Structures • Job shop - • Batch shop - • Assembly Line - • Continuous Flow -
Few Major Products, Higher Volume High Volume, High Standard- ization Low Volume, One of a Kind Multiple Products, Low Volume Flexibility (High) Unit Cost (High) I. Job Shop Commercial Printer French Restaurant II. Batch Heavy Equipment Coffee Shop III. Assembly Line Automobile Assembly Burger King IV. Continuous Flow Sugar Refinery Flexibility (Low) Unit Cost (Low) Exhibit 5.10
Process Flow DesignDefined • A process flow design can be defined as a mapping of the specific processes that raw materials, parts, and subassemblies follow as they move through a plant. • The most common tools to conduct a process flow design include assembly drawings, assembly charts, and operation and route sheets.
Lock-ring 4 Spacer, detent spring 5 SA-2 A-2 Rivets (2) 6 Spring-detent 7 A-5 Component/Assy Operation Inspection From Exhibit 5.14 Example: Assembly Chart (Gozinto)
Example: Process Flow Chart Material Received from Supplier No, Continue… Inspect Material for Defects Defects found? Yes Return to Supplier for Credit
Route Sheet • Lists all operations
Capacity • Capacity - number of units produced per time period • If 6 workers are employed for a process with 11 machines and each machine produces 25 parts per hour, what is the weekly capacity (5 days) for a one shift per day operation (8-hours) if each machine requires a worker full time?
Global Product Design and Manufacturing Strategies • Joint Ventures - a parent company selects a partner in a foreign country to produce and deliver a product in that market - local customization • Global Product Design Strategy - developing standard modules common to all units sold globally - customized close to the customer - language, electric power
Measuring Product Development Performance • Time-to-market - • Productivity - • Quality -