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The City School Southern Region. Organization and Reengineering of Schools. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and School Performance. Group Members. Basic Concept of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). There is a striking similarity between a state and an organization.

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organization and reengineering of schools
The City SchoolSouthern Region Organization and Reengineering of Schools

Organizational Citizenship Behavior


School Performance

Basic Concept ofOrganizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)

There is a striking similarity between a state and an organization.

  • A state or country works for the development of its citizens. In addition to providing rights to them, it can motivate its citizens to contribute to their duties.
  • Similarly, in an organization driven by a strong leadership, employees can be helped to understand the importance of their role and to go beyond the call of duty by making them citizens of the company/school.
Definition of OCB

Individual behaviours of employees that are beneficial to the organization and are discretionary, not directly recognized by formal reward system but rather a matter of personal choice.

Job Satisfaction



Job Involvement


Components of OCB


  • Positive or negative feelings/thoughts about objects, people or events.
  • Attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour.
  • Cognitive: Often comes from personal values
  • Affective: The feeling component
Job Satisfaction
  • Fairly paid salary
  • Good Interpersonal relations with employer and co-workers
  • Motivation through appreciation or bonuses
  • Opportunities for promotion
  • Appropriate (happy and hygienic) environment
  • Up to date equipment/ resources
  • Job security
  • Empowerment and trust
  • Assigning task according to the employees’ interest and talent
  • Clear cut working policy
  • Professional training and personal grooming
Job Involvement
  • Self determination
  • Contribution to company’s success
  • Supportive to co- workers
  • Trusting the organization
  • Freedom to set one’s own workplace
Organizational Commitment

The strength of an individual’s identification with an organization.

Affective Commitment

Positive emotional attachment

Continuance Commitment

Cannot afford to leave due to economic and social costs

Nominative Commitment

Perceived obligation to remain



Job satisfaction



Unfair Appraisals

Job Dissatisfaction

Withdrawal/ Turnover

Where Do We Stand Now?


The school ethos and culture is based on positive attitude.

Job Involvement

Loyalty with the organization and performance of duty not related to the reward system but by choice.

Job Satisfaction

Competitive salaries and opportunities for professional development through in-service and on job training.

Organizational Commitment

High commitment with the organization creating The City School family.


  • A fair system of appraisals and promotions.
High Organizational Performance

High Organizational Performance in relation to Organizational Citizenship behavior has certain theoretical consideration which suggest the aligning of People, Strategy, and Process through:

(Gravenkemper & LePla 2009)

Keeping this theoretical framework of high organizational performance in mind, specific suggestions can be made to Reengineer the existing practices in The City Schools.

  • Better communication at all levels through regular meetings, interactive sessions and newsletters.
  • Provide forum for collective problem solving.
  • Increase delegation
  • Development of a more effective and comprehensive system of staff selection.
In the grasslands,

somewhere on the African continent,

success can be defined in terms of life and death,

Survival is a strong motivator.

Here’s a short story …

When the light comes in the Eastern sky and you sense that the sun will soon steal the comfort and security of the night, the gazelle starts to stir. He knows that if, during this day, he does not run faster than the fastest cheetah, he may be caught and then he will be killed.

Not far away, the cheetah stretches out his powerful muscles and thinks of the day ahead, He knows that if he does not run faster than the slowest gazelle, he will surely starve.

The moral of this story …

It doesn’t matter whether you are a gazelle or a cheetah …

…when the sun is up …

… you had better be running.