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The Under-Representation of African American Football Coaches. Justin Lustig July 9, 2006. Introduction . Roughly half of college football players are African-American and less than 4% of collegiate head football coaches are African-American (Hill, 2004). Background .

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introduction
Introduction

Roughly half of college football players are African-American and less than 4% of collegiate head football coaches are African-American (Hill, 2004).

background
Background
  • Since 1996, only 1 African American male has been hired each year to fill head coaching positions out of a possible 142 openings (Hill, 2003).
  • First African American Division I head football coach was William Jefferies in 1979 at Wichita State University.
  • Since 1979 a total of 18 African American men have occupied the head coaching position (Harrison, 2003).
  • The majority of African American head coaches have been coaching as historically black colleges.
current status
Current Status
  • In December 2004 The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) executive director Dr. Miles Brand addressed the diversity problem in his “State of the Association” speech:
    • An occasion in which the commitment to ethical standards has begged for attention is rectifying the problem of too few black football head coaches. This past year, there were only four persons who are African-American among the 117 head coaches in Division I-A. This is unacceptable, especially given that a large proportion of student athletes who participate on these teams are African- American. (NCAA, 2004)
sources of the problem
Sources of the Problem
  • “good ole’ boys” network
    • Hiring based on intangibles and “fit” not solely on the basis of talent.
    • Lack of professional networks.
  • Hiring Process
    • Only 2.9% of athletic directors are African American.
    • Most athletic organizations are lead by white men who are not forced to meet diversity goals.
    • There are not enough minorities in hiring positions.
    • Denial of purposeful staff assignments to blacks that would facilitate career advancement (Brooks and Althouse, 2003).
sources of the problem cont
Sources of the Problem Cont’
  • The NCAA does not define the term “qualified” for minorities so it is unclear on what specific hiring criteria and qualifications are needed.
  • There are not enough minorities in hiring positions.
  • Leaders hire who they are comfortable with.
  • The informal organization of the coaching profession makes it difficult for diversity to exist.
possible solutions
Possible solutions

NCAA Coaches Academy

“The mission of the Coaches Academy is to “assist ethnic minority football coaches with career advancement through skills enhancement, networking and exposure opportunities and to raise awareness regarding the substantial pool of talented ethnic minority coaches” (NCAA, 2005).

  • Began in 2003 when the NCAA allocated $180,000 to this project.
  • Prepare ethnic minorities for head coaching positions.
  • NCAA must change the culture that persists within its member institutions.
possible solutions cont
Possible solutions Cont’

NCAA Affirmative action initiatives

  • Force schools to hire minorities and use a quota system
    • Schools would have to hire and maintain certain numbers of minorities in order to be eligible in NCAA competitions.
  • Development mentoring and developmental programs
    • Designed to recruit, train and retain ethnic minority coaches.
    • Raising the numbers and the quality of the minority coaching pool.
possible solutions cont9
Possible solutions Cont’
  • The hiring report card
    • Published last year, looks specifically at schools and their hiring process.
    • An important tool that will aid in identifying the specific problems that need attention.
related internet links
Related Internet Links
  • Black Coaches Association
    • http://www.bcasports.org/
  • Official website of the NCAA
    • http://www.ncaa.org
  • Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sporthttp://www.bus.ucf.edu/sport/cgi-bin/site/sitew.cgi?page=/ides/index.htx
reference
Reference
  • Brooks, D., & Althouse, R. (eds). (1993). Racial Imbalance in coaching and managerial

positions. In Racism in college athletics: The African American athlete’s

experience. (pp. 101-142). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.

  • Harrison, K. (2004) The score: A hiring report card for NCAA division IA and IAA

football head coaching positions. Official publication of the

NCAA, Indianapolis, Indiana. In conjunction with the Black Coaches Association. Hughes, A. and

  • Wright, M. (2003). Black men can’t coach? [Electronic Version] Black

Enterprise; July; 33, 12; pg.63.

  • Hill, F. (2004). Shattering the glass ceiling: blacks in coaching [Electronic version].

Black Issues in Higher Education. 21.

  • NCAA (2001). 1999-2000 Race Demographics of NCAA Member Institutions’ Athletics

Personnel. Official publication of the NCAA, Indianapolis, Indiana.

  • NCAA (2005). NCAA sets program for coaches academy. Official publication of the

NCAA, Indianapolis, Indiana.

  • NCAA (2004). Statement from NCAA president Miles Brand on firing and hiring of

college head football coaches. Official publication of the NCAA, Indianapolis,

Indiana.

  • Suggs, W. (2000).Top posts in sports program still tend to go to white men [Electronic

version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education. June 2; 46, 39: pg. A53.

discussion questions
Discussion Questions

1.) College football is not the only sport that has dealt with the issue of under representation of African American coaches. Are there other collegiate or professional sports that have done a better job at hiring African Americans as head coaches? If so, why?

2.)Should the NCAA implement affirmative action initiatives to promote the hiring of more minority coaches? Why or why not?

3.) If the NCAA were to regulate hiring processes of member institutions, would that be enough to create a larger number of minority head coaches? Explain.