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Total Design. Market Assessment. is a systematic activity: Identification of the market need → sale of product to meet that need. Product, Process, People, Organization, etc. Design Core Market Analysis Specification Concept Design Detailed Design Manufacturing Sales

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total design
Total Design

Market Assessment

  • is a systematic activity:
  • Identification of the market need → sale of product to meet that need.
  • Product, Process, People, Organization, etc.
  • Design Core
    • Market Analysis
    • Specification
    • Concept Design
    • Detailed Design
    • Manufacturing
    • Sales
  • Product Design Specification (PDS)
    • Envelopes all stages of the design core

Specification

Concept Design

Detail Design

Manufacture

Sell

THE DESIGN CORE

the design core
The Design Core

Market Assessment

Specification

DETAIL

DESIGN

A vast subject. We will concentrate on:

Materials Selection

Process Selection

Cost Breakdown

Concept Design

Detail Design

Manufacture

Sell

materials selection

Metals and Alloys

Wire-reinforced cement

Cermets

MMCs

Steel-cord tyres

Composites

Ceramics and Glasses

CFRP

GFRP

Polymers

Filled polymers

Materials Selection
materials properties

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

Physical

optical

magnetic

electrical

Mechanical

tribology

fatigue

KIC

σy

UTS

E

Chemical

corrosion

oxidation

FUNCTIONALMATERIALS

MATERIAL

Other

feel

look

Thermal

α

K

H

Tm

TTransition

Environmental

recycling

energy consumption

waste

Materials Properties
materials selection without shape
Generic materials selection

Problem statement

Model

Function, Objective, Constraints

Selection

Examples

Oars

Mirrors for large telescopes

Low cost building materials

Flywheels

Springs

Safe pressure vessels

Precision devices

Materials Selection without Shape
generic materials selection
Generic Materials Selection

p: Performance of component; f(F,G,M)

F: Functional requirement, e.g. withstanding a force

G: Geometry, e.g. diameter, length etc.

M: Materials properties, e.g. E, KIC, ρ

Separable function if:

P = f1(F) · f2(G) · f3(M)

TASK: Maximize f3(M) where M is the “performance index”

procedure for deriving m
Procedure for Deriving “M”
  • Identify the attribute to be maximized or minimized (weight, cost, energy, stiffness, strength, safety, environmental damage, etc.).
  • Develop an equation for this attribute in terms of the functional requirements, the geometry, and the material properties ( the objective function).
  • Identify the free (unspecified) variables.
  • Identify the constraints; rank them in order of importance.
  • Develop equations for the constraints (no yield, no fracture, no buckling, maximum heat capacity, cost below target, etc.).
  • Substitute for the free variables from the constraints into the objective function.
  • Group the variables into three groups: functional requirements, F, geometry, G, and materials properties, M.
  • Read off the performance index, expressed as a quantity, M, to be maximized.
  • Note that a full solution is not necessary in order to identify the material property group.
the materials selection map

Guidelines for

M = Prop2/Prop1

Search

Region

M = 40

The Materials Selection Map
example i a light strong tie

Search

Region

M = 100Nm/g

f1(F) f2(G) f3(M)

So, to minimize mass m,

maximise

Example I: A light strong tie
example ii a light stiff column circular

Search

Region

f1(F)·f2(G)·f3(M)

So, to minimize mass m,

maximise

Example II: A light stiff column (circular)
example iii pressure vessel

Light weight cylindrical

vessel of fixed radius

Search

Region

f1(F)·f2(G)·f3(M)

So, to minimize mass m,

maximise

Example III: Pressure Vessel
performance indices elastic design
Performance Indices: Elastic Design

Note:σf = failure strength; E = Young’s modulus; ρ = density; η= loss coefficient

performance indices min weight
Performance Indices: Min. Weight

Note:σf = failure strength; E = Young’s modulus; G = shear modulus; ρ = density

performance indices min weight18
Performance Indices: Min. Weight

Note: KIC = fracture toughness ρ = density

materials for large telescopes21

Search

Region

M = 2 (GPa)1/3m3/Mg

Materials for Large Telescopes
materials for oars

Second

moment of area:

So, to minimize mass m,

maximise

Materials for Oars
materials for oars23

Search

Region

M = 6 (GPa)1/2m3/Mg

Materials for Oars
materials for buildings

F

b

b

y

σ=σy

Materials for Buildings

Floor Beam

materials for buildings25

Search

Region

Search

Region

M1 = 1.6

M2 = 6.8

Materials for Buildings
materials for springs29

Search

Region

M1 = 6 MJ/m3

Materials for Springs
materials for springs30

Search

Region

M2 = 2 kJ/kg

Materials for Springs
materials for flywheels

Kinetic energy:

Polar moment of inertia:

Mass:

Stress:

Materials for Flywheels
materials for flywheels32

Search

Region

M1 = 100 kJ/kg

Maximizing energy/volume

Materials for Flywheels

Maximizing energy/mass

materials for precision devices35

Al

Ag

Cu

Au

Be

Mo

W

SiC

Si

Diamond

Search

Region

M1 = 107 W/m

Materials for Precision Devices