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    1. The Role of Reputation: History, Status and Outlook of Romany and Basque

    3. Romany

    4. History of the Roma People Centuries ago the Roma migrated to Europe from Northern India. In the 18th Century a linguistic link between Romany and Sanskrit was discovered. Traveling musicians, blacksmiths, pot menders, entertainers. Highly persecuted throughout history. Stereotyped predominantly as thieves.

    5. Status of Romany Approximately 1.5-4.5 Million speakers Many dialects A collection of related languages that comprise all the members of a single genetic subgroup. No Official Status in Europe Falls under the protection of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

    6. Outlook of Romany Many do not identify themselves as Roma Traditional lifestyles clash with modern societies BUT transnational organizations have emerged to promote the rights of the Roma and the preservation of Romany.

    7. Basque

    8. History of Basque Language Isolate Languages of the Region were: Latin French or Castilian Spanish Basque Nationalist Movement began in the middle of the 19th Century. In 1950s, the nationalism swelled into separatism.

    9. Status of Basque A standardized Basque Grammar was published in 1968. Schools began using Basque as the primary language of instruction. In 1982 Basque became one of the official languages of the region. There are approximately 600,000 speakers, primarily in Spain and France. Basque is protected under the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages.

    10. Outlook of Basque Strong associations of language with culture and nationalism. Today there are: Daily newspapers Websites and Institutes promoting Basque Study Abroad Programs Pop Music in Basque Recently Basque gained recognition as a working language within the EU.

    11. Conclusion Basque and Romany are endangered languages with very different statuses. Basques advantages: Claim to land and standardized language Strong nationalism associated with language Traditionally European Recognized and protected by Spain and the EU Romanys Advantages: Nomadic group with limited contact with outsiders Over 1 million speakers Recent enlargement of EU could be advantageous At the current state, Basque has managed to overcome its image as terrorists and appears to have a much better chance for survival.

    12. Bibliography Basque Language. 25 Sep. 2005. Wikipedia. 26 Sep. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_language Basque Nationalism. 21 Sep. 2005. Wikipedia. 26 Sep. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_nationalism Bretting, J. (2003). The East European Gypsies: Regime Change, Marginality, and Ethnopolitics. The Journal of Politics 65(3), 935-937. Capras, D. Go Europe--Use English. Spotlight 15 Jun 2005. 26 Sep 2005 http://www.spotlight-online.de/doc/18251 Durnescu, I. et. al. (2002), Incidence and Characteristics of Rroma Men in Romanian Prisons. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 41(3), 237-244. European Charter for Minority and Regional Languages (2005). Wikipedia. Nov 1, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Charter_for_Minority_or_Regional_Languages. Green, J. (1999). Language: Romany Rise. Critical Quarterly 41(3), 118-122. Guglielmo, R. & Waters T. (2005). Migrating Towards Minority Status: Shifting European Policy towards Roma. Journal of Common Market Studies 43(4), 763-86. Language Isolate. 25 Sep. 2005. Wikipedia. 26 Sep. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_isolate Posavek & Hrvatic (2000). Intercultural education and Roma in Croatia. Intercultural Education 11(1), 93-105. Regional and minority languages of the European Union. Education and Training. 28 Feb. 2005. Europa. 26 Sep. 2005 http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/lang/languages/langmin/regmin_en.html Romany (2005). Wikipedia. Nov 1, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romany Roma People (2005). Wikipedia. Nov 1, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roma_People. Salleh, A. (2004). Romany Gypsies came out of India. News in Science. Nov 1, 2005 http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s1191889.htm. Sever, I. (1999). The Never-Ending Roma Question. The Patrin Web Journal. Nov 1, 2005 http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/never-ending-question.htm. Tejerina, B. (2001). Protest cycle, political violence and social movements in the Basque Country. Nations and Nationalism 7(1), 39-57. The languages of Spain. Cyberspain. 26 Sep. 2005 http://www.cyberspain.com/passion/lenguajes.htm Urla, J. (2003). Euskara: the 'terror' of a European minority language. Anthropology Today, 19(4), 1-3.