Cultures Clash on the Prairie - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cultures Clash on the Prairie

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  1. Cultures Clash on the Prairie Chapter 13 Section 1

  2. Plains Indians • 200,000 after Civil War • Diverse group • Tasks divided by gender • Nature was significant • Weaknesses: unable to unite against whites; vulnerable to disease

  3. Indian Tribes & US Govt • Traditionally: * tribes were independent nations * president could negotiate with tribes * treaties were ratified by Senate *** Many broken treaties!

  4. Federal Govt Indian Policy • Concentration Policy (1850s) 1. Each tribe assigned its own reservation 2. Easier for govt to control 3. Whites get best land

  5. Indian Peace Commission (1867) • To create a permanent Indian policy • Move all Plains Indians to 2 reservations (1 in OK & 1 in Dakotas) • Govt agents bribed & tricked Indian reps into signing treaties • Destruction of buffalo herds

  6. Indian Wars • Constant fighting from 1850s to 1880s • Indian warriors (30-40) attacked wagon trails, stagecoaches, & ranches

  7. Sand Creek Massacre • Eastern CO • Nov. 29, 1864 • Forces led by Colonel J.M. Chivington massacred over 150 people • Indians believed they were under army protection

  8. Gold is Found in the Black Hills (1874) • Conflict began over US army trying to build a road (Bozeman Trail) to connect Fort Laramie to new mining centers • The trail ran through Sioux hunting grounds & violated a earlier treaty • Sioux tried to end the trail & white settlement by appealing to govt – efforts failed

  9. Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) • 1875: Sioux led by Crazy Horse & Sitting Bull left reservation • Battle took place in southern MT • Sioux surprised George A. Custer’s troops & killed all 264

  10. Ghost Dance • Part of a spiritual revival movement • Scared US military

  11. Wounded Knee • Dec 29, 1890 • 7th Calvary tried to round up 350 Sioux in S. Dakota • Fighting broke out • 300 Indians died

  12. Dawes Act (1887) • Transferred land ownership to individuals; not tribes • 160 acres to each family • To promote assimilation • Applied to western tribes • Between 1887-1932: Indians lost over 2/3 of their territory

  13. Bureau of Indian Affairs • Sent children to boarding schools • Encouraged spread of Christianity • Often corrupt & incompetent • Carlisle Indian School