structure of prokaryotic eukaryotic cells l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Structure of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Structure of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 44

Structure of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 211 Views
  • Uploaded on

Structure of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells. Review of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells. Nucleus vs nucleoid DNA : circular vs linear, presence of histones Membranous organelles Cell wall-peptidoglycan Cell division: binary vs mitosis Ribosomes: 70S vs 80S Cytoskeleton. Shape. Cocci

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Structure of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells' - liam


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
review of prokaryotic eukaryotic cells
Review of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
  • Nucleus vs nucleoid
  • DNA : circular vs linear, presence of histones
  • Membranous organelles
  • Cell wall-peptidoglycan
  • Cell division: binary vs mitosis
  • Ribosomes: 70S vs 80S
  • Cytoskeleton
shape
Shape
  • Cocci
    • Diplococci
    • Streptococci
    • Tetrads
    • Sarcinae
    • Staphylococci
bacillus
Bacillus
  • Coccobacilli
  • Diplobacilli
  • Streptobacilli
spiral
Spiral
  • Vibrio-curved rods
  • Spirilla-helical & rigid
  • Spirochetes-helical & flexible
  • Other shapes
  • Pleomorphic
glycocalyx
Glycocalyx
  • Glycolipids or glycoproteins
  • Surrounds cell
  • Capsule or slime layer
  • Capsule more organized & attached to wall
  • Advantages of capsule
slime layer biofilm
Slime Layer(Biofilm)
  • Surrounds cell
  • Loosely organized & not attached
  • Tangled mass of fibers-dextran
  • Attachment to surfaces -S. mutans
  • Shields bacteria from immune defense & antibiotics
glycocalyx eukaryotes
Glycocalyx -Eukaryotes
  • Animal cells have one
  • Made of carbohydrates
  • No do not have a cell wall
  • Surround plasma membrane
  • Stabilizes PM
flagella
Flagella
  • Movement
    • Spins like propeller
    • Clockwise or counter clockwise
  • Chemotaxis- movement toward or away
arrangements
Arrangements
  • Monotrichous: one at end
  • Amphitrichous: both ends
  • Lophotrichous: tuft at end or ends
  • Peritrichous: around the cell
structure
Structure
  • Composition-protein subunits: flagellin (H protein) E. coli H7
    • Chains twisted together with hollow core
    • Helical shaped
    • Filament, hook, basal body
    • Hook
    • Basal body:
flagella12
Flagella
  • Basal body
  • Classified by flagella protein
axial filament
Axial Filament
  • Spirochetes
    • Treponema pallidum-syphilis
    • Borrelia burgdorferi-Lyme disease
  • Bundle of fibrials within a sheath
  • Corkscrew motion
movement eukaryotes
Movement Eukaryotes
  • Flagella & cilia
    • 9+2 arrangement of microtubules
    • Cilia in Paramecium & respiratory cells
prokaryote fimbriae pili
Prokaryote Fimbriae & Pili
  • Made of pilin: string of subunits
  • Function: attachment
  • Few to hundreds
  • Fimbrae
  • Pili-longer & fewer
  • Not in eukaryotes
cell wall
Cell Wall
  • Function
  • Basis of Gram stain
composition
Composition
  • Peptidoglycan
    • Repeating subunits of disaccharides
      • N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG)
      • N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM)
      • Linked alternately in rows
    • Attached by polypeptides
      • Tetrapeptide side chains link NAM subunits
      • Cross bridge of amino acids link tetrapeptides
    • Forms lattice
peptidoglycan
Peptidoglycan
  • Confers shape & prevents lysis
  • Cell growth
    • Autolysins break cross linkages in peptidoglycan
    • Transpeptidases seal breaks
    • Penicillin inactivates these enzymes
  • Existing cells
    • Treat with lysozyme-tears, saliva etc.
    • Destroys linkages between carbohydrates
gram positive cell wall
Gram Positive Cell Wall
  • Thick layers: 40-80% of dry wt, up to 30 layers
  • Contains teichoic acid
    • Alcohol and phosphate
    • Negative charge
    • Cell growth-prevents lysis
    • Antigenic properties
gram negative cell wall
Gram Negative Cell Wall
  • Few layers of peptidoglycan- 10%
  • Outer membrane: bilayer
  • Periplasm
slide21
LPS
  • Strong negative charge
  • Barrier to some antibiotics
  • Outer membrane-endotoxin
    • O polysaccharides
    • Lipid-lipid A
gram stain
Gram Stain
  • Differential stain dev by Hans Gram 1880s
    • Classifies bacteria into 2 groups
    • Based upon cell wall composition
    • Gram variable stain unevenly
    • Gram non reactive do not stain or stain poorly
comparison
Comparison
  • Gram positives
gram negatives
Gram Negatives
  • ETOH disrupts outer layer
  • CV-I complex is washed out of thin peptidoglycan layer
  • Counterstain
atypical cell walls
Atypical Cell Walls
  • Streptococci
  • Mycobacteria
  • Mycoplasma
    • PM unique with sterols protect from lysis
mycoplasma
Mycoplasma
  • Lack a cell wall so pleomorphic
  • Classified with gram positives
  • Smallest genome of any bacteria
  • Droplet spread-use regular mask
  • Why can’t you use penicillin?
cell wall of eukaryotes
Cell wall of Eukaryotes
  • Simpler than prokaryotes
  • Algae & plants
  • Fungi
  • Yeasts
  • Protozoa
  • Animals
plasma membrane
Plasma Membrane
  • Thin, fluid structure inside cell wall-viscous
  • Proteins
  • Phospholipids-2 layers
functions of membrane
Functions of Membrane
  • Selective permeability
  • Passive transport:
  • Active transport:
  • Enzymes break down nutrients
  • Infoldings
plasma membrane of eukaryotes
Plasma Membrane of Eukaryotes
  • Phospholipids and proteins
  • Carbohydrates and sterols-cholesterol
  • More rigid than prokaryotic PM
  • Endocytosis
  • Exocytosis
cytoplasm of prokaryotes
Cytoplasm of Prokaryotes
  • 80% water, thick, solutes
  • Increase in osmotic pressure on membrane
    • Rigid cell wall prevents lysis
  • Contains DNA
  • Ribosomes
  • Inclusion bodies
cytoplasm of eukaryotes
Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes
  • Cytosol-fluid portion
  • Cytoskelton
    • Microfilaments:
    • Microtubules:
    • Intermediate filaments:
  • Cytoplasmic streaming
ribosomes
Ribosomes
  • 2 subunits of protein and rRNA
  • 70s ribosomes
  • Polyribosomes-chains
  • Protein synthesis
  • Eukayotes-80s
inclusions
Inclusions
  • Polysaccharide granules
  • Sulfur granules
  • Reserve deposits-volutin (phosphates)
endospores
Endospores
  • Unique to bacteria: Clostridium & Bacillus
  • Sporulation-formation of spores
germination
Germination
  • Triggered by damage to coat
  • Enzymes break down endospore
  • Water enters & metabolism begins
  • Not a reproductive structure
nuclear area of bacteria
Nuclear Area of Bacteria
  • Single, ds DNA chromosome
  • Attached to PM at some point
  • Nucleoid area, not a nucleus
  • Plasmids
nucleus
Nucleus
  • Largest structure in cell
    • Nucleoli
  • DNA associated with proteins -histones
organelles in eukaryotes
Organelles in Eukaryotes
  • Unique to eukaryotes
  • Membranous structures
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
      • Smooth & rough
    • Golgi complex
    • Lysosomes
    • Mitochondria
    • Cloroplasts
slide40
ER
  • Flattened membranous sacs
  • Rough ER-ribosomes attached
  • Smooth ER- no ribosomes
  • Free ribosomes- proteins don’t need processing
golgi complex
Golgi Complex
  • Stacks of membranous sacs
  • Receive transport vesicles from ER
  • Modify molecules to form glycoproteins, glycolipids lipoproteins
  • Transported in secretory vesicles to PM or to outside cell
lysosomes
Lysosomes
  • Formed from Golgi
    • Contain digestive enzymes: proteases & nucleases
    • Break down old parts of cell
    • Breaks down pathogens
mitochondria
Mitochondria
  • Double membrane
  • Generation of ATP
chloroplasts
Chloroplasts
  • Thylakoids-flattened membranous sacs
  • Contain DNA 70s ribosomes
  • Stroma thick fluid in center- Calvin cycle
  • Generation of ATP & sugars