SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE ESOPHAGUS . GENERAL THORACIC SURGERY CHAPTER 143. ETIOLOGY. No specific etiology agent. Poverty and malnutrition. High dietary content of nitrosamines, nitrites. Tobacco, betel nut, chronic esophageal irritation. Lye burn.
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GENERAL THORACIC SURGERY
Early-stage esophageal cancer—intraepitherlial, intramucosal, submucosal carcinoma.
No lymph node metastases.
I — intralumonal mass without wall thickening.
II — wall thickening.
III — tumor spread into adjacent tissue.
IV — distal meatastases.
Toluidine blue stain — the tumor cell not the normal nucosa.
Lugol’s solution stain — the normal cell not the tumor cell.
Small tumor less than 5 cm long.
No invasion to advantia.
No lymph node involvement.
Age younger than 60 year.