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Education

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  1. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys- MICS3 Analysis and Report Writing Workshop Panama City, July 12-20, 2006 Education

  2. Indicators • Participation • Pre-school attendance • School readiness • Net intake rate in primary education • Net primary school attendance rate • Net secondary school attendance rate • Female to male education ratio (gender parity index-GPI) • Progression • Survival rate to grade five • Transition rate to secondary school • Net primary completion rate • Adult literacy rate

  3. Goals • World Fit for Children (WFFC) • Providing quality education • Early childhood education • Children out of school and alternative education • Numeracy, literacy and essential life skills • Adult literacy • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) • Achieve universal primary education • Promote gender equality and empower women

  4. Why to measure education? • Reasons: • Provide a comprehensive description of children’s participation and progression in the education system • To evaluate impact of programs and interventions based on trends

  5. Data sources • Administrative records • Population census • School surveys • Household surveys

  6. Are there differences? if yes why? • Existing evidence: • Different concepts and definitions (enrolment versus attendance) • Deficient administrative records • Measurement errors

  7. Which is the approach in MICS3? • Estimation of indicators based on household survey to inform data from administrative records • Use other existing estimates and compare along time • Report within the existing context of data availability and limitations

  8. Which countries included this module in MICS3? • 6 out of 7 • Belize, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago • Cuba included part of the module only • Mongolia?

  9. Pre-school net attendance ratio • Numerator: • Number of children aged 36-59 months that attend some form of early childhood education programme • Denominator: • Total number of children aged 36-59 months surveyed

  10. [I1]Adapt code categories to locally-relevant ones and pre-test.

  11. Methodological issues • The results are presented for 3-4 years only • It is possible to estimate pre-school participation for 5-6 years old from data collected with the household questionnaire • However, these numbers are not comparable mainly because pre-school participation not always include non-formal early learning centers

  12. School readiness • Numerator: • Number of children in first grade that attended some form of pre-school the previous year • Denominator: • Total number of children in the first grade surveyed

  13. SPSS Program • Generates basic table: ED.1 • Generates: • the percentage of 3 and 4 year old attending early education: total and by background variables • the percentage of children attending first grade who attended ECE the year before

  14. Net intake rate in primary education • Numerator: • Number of children of primary school-entry age that are currently attending first grade • Denominator: • Total number of children of primary-school entry age surveyed

  15. SPSS Program • Generates basic table: ED.2 • Percentage of children of primary school-entry age that are currently attending first grade

  16. Primary school net attendance rate • Numerator: • Number of children of primary-school age currently attending primary or secondary school • Denominator: • Total number of children of primary-school age surveyed • Note: the primary school age is defined at the country level and agreed at the international level via ISCED1

  17. Primary school ages according to ISCED1 • Belize 5-10 • Cuba 6-11 • Dominican Republic 6-11 • Guyana 6-11 • Jamaica 6-11 • Suriname 6-11 • Trinidad and Tobago 5-11 • Mongolia 8-11

  18. SPSS Program • Generates basic table: ED.3 • Percentage of children of primary-school age currently attending primary or secondary school

  19. Secondary school net attendance rate • Numerator: • Number of children of secondary-school age currently attending secondary or tertiary school • Denominator: • Total number of children of secondary-school age surveyed • Note: the secondary school age is defined at the country level and agreed at the international level via ISCED2

  20. Secondary school ages according to ISCED2 • Belize 11-16 • Cuba 12-16 • Dominican Republic 13-17 • Guyana 12-16 • Jamaica 12-16 • Suriname 12-17 • Trinidad and Tobago 12-16 • Mongolia 12-17

  21. SPSS Program • Generates basic table: ED.4 • Percentage of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary or tertiary school

  22. Methodological issues • Results refer to attendance instead of enrolment • In reality we should aim to measure attendance • Enrolment tends to over estimate school participation • Results refer to net attendance instead of gross • Gross attendance in primary/secondary education includes children of no primary/no secondary education ages • Gross attendance ratios can be greater than 100% • Primary/secondary attendance ratios include children attending primary or higher/secondary or higher

  23. Female to male education ratioGender parity index (GPI) • Numerator: • Girls net enrolment/attendance ratio in primary, secondary, or tertiary education • Denominator: • Boys net enrolment/attendance ratio in primary, secondary, or tertiary education

  24. SPSS Program • Generates basic table: ED.7 • Generates: • gender parity index for primary net attendance ratios (girls/boys) • gender parity index for secondary net attendance ratios (girls/boys)

  25. Methodological issues • GPIs are based on net attendance ratios (primary/secondary) • Sometimes GPIs are based on gross attendance/enrolment ratios (primary/secondary) • Gross ratios are mostly used when data is not available by age of the child • Net is preferred over gross because it describes better the situation in terms to gender equality (the ideal situation) • Gross ratios are useful when children are not attending the grade that corresponds to their age

  26. A holistic approach • To better describe school participation we propose: • Look at primary and secondary together • Use the following 3 simple indicators: • Primary net attendance ratio • Secondary net attendance ratio • Percentage of secondary school age children that are attending primary school • Present analysis of school participation (levels and GPI) in a comprehensive way rather than primary and secondary separated

  27. Using Gross ratios: PGAR = (B+E)/A = (2,413+ 1,085)/2,559=137% Using Net Ratios: PNAR = B/A = 2,413/2,559 = 94% SNAR = F/C = 1,092/2,669 = 41% Ratio of SAP/PS = E/C = 1,085/2,669 = 41%

  28. The analysis then produces… • Primary education among children 6-11years of age: • 94% attend primary or higher • 6% do not attend primary education • Secondary education among children 12-17: • 41% attend secondary or higher • 41% attend primary education • 18% do not attend school • In total, we have that 24% of the children 6-17 years of age are out of school

  29. Survival rate to grade five • Definition: • Proportion of children entering the first grade of primary school that eventually reach grade five

  30. Survival rate to grade 5 • The percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5 is calculated as the product of four probabilities: • the probability that a child in grade 1 eventually reaches grade 2 • the probability that a child in grade 2 eventually reaches grade 3 • the probability that a child in grade 3 eventually reaches grade 4 • the probability that a child in grade 4 eventually reaches grade 5

  31. Example: to calculate the probability that a child in grade 1 eventually reaches grade 2 • the number of children who are in 2nd grade of primary school at the time of the survey and who were in 1st grade last year • is divided by: • the number of children who were in 1st grade last year and graduated to 2nd grade or dropped out of school

  32. Children reaching grade 5

  33. SPSS Program • Generates basic table: ED.5 • Probability that children who enter grade 1 of primary school, eventually reach grade 5

  34. Methodological issues • RG5 is an indicator with some degree of difficulty for both estimation and interpretation • Note that in the current approach we exclude from our estimation children found to be repeating a grade under the assumption that their probability of dropping from school, repeating again, or promotion to the next grade is included in the other cohorts • It measures the probability for children starting grade 1 to reach grade 5 and it is based on children that are participating in school • It is used as a proxy for literacy among children