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peace and security through disarmament

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Peace and Security throughDISARMAMENT

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“Let us at least make sure that the next generation understands, better than ours has done, or at least mine has done, that human security is as much governance, human rights, and social justice, as it is about arsenals.”

Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary-General

November 2000

slide3

THE NUCLEAR THREAT

continues today…

THE MILLENIUM SUMMIT

of the General Assembly resolved “to strive for the elimination of weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons…”

slide4

HIROSHIMA, 1945

“The need for a more human-centred approach to security is reinforced by the continuing dangers that weapons of mass destruction, most notably nuclear weapons, pose to humanity.”

Kofi Annan,

UN Secretary-General

slide5

Banning

NUCLEAR TEST EXPLOSIONS

Forever

OVER 2000 NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

worldwide were registered in the 51 years between the first nuclear explosive test on 16 July 1945 and the adoption of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty on 24 September 1996.

slide6

Banning and Destroying

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

“Whereas the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases… has been justly condemned by the general opinion of the civilized world.”

From the preamble of the 1925 Geneva

Protocol banning the use in war of chemical

and bacteriological methods of warfare

slide7

CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS

Fighting Today’s Wars

OVERSUPPLIES OF CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS

• Make war more likely and more deadly • Encourage

violence • Prolong conflicts • Hamper humanitarian aid

• Threaten peace agreements • Endanger peacekeepers

• Destabilize Governments • Hinder economic development

slide8

The Heavy Toll of

SMALL ARMS

In recent conflicts around the world, small arms and light weapons have been the cause of four out of five casualties. The vast majority of victims have been non-combattants. Most are women and children.

slide9

Modern arms are light, easy to carry and hide, require little maintenance and little or no training. They can make every farmer, every office worker, even every school child, a potential soldier.

slide10

LANDMINES

Don’t Walk Here

Today, 80% of landmine victims are civilians, killed or injured after wars and conflicts have ended. One third of the nations of the earth are affected by mine and unexploded ordinance (UXO) contamination.

slide11

A landmine can cost as little as US $3 to manufacture. Finding and removing it can cost as much as US $1,000.

disarmament solutions
DISARMAMENT SOLUTIONS
  • REDUCING NUCLEAR DANGERS
  • INTERNATIONAL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR GLOBAL BAN ON NUCLEAR TESTING
  • WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
  • DISARMAMENT OF CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS
  • FIVE PILLARS OF THE UN MINE ACTION
reducing nuclear dangers
REDUCING NUCLEAR DANGERS

At the height of the cold war, more than 70,000 nuclear weapons existed.

Much has been achieved:

  • To reduce, dismantle and eliminate nuclear weapons
  • To stop the spread of nuclear weapons
  • To monitor material from dismantled nuclear weapons
  • To stop the testing of nuclear weapons
  • To create nuclear-weapon-free zones
reducing nuclear dangers14
REDUCING NUCLEAR DANGERS

Much still needs to be done

As we start the millennium, more than 30,000 nuclear weapons remain. Many are on high alert and ready to be launched on warning.

Torching Nuclear Arms: Nuclear missile dismantling, 1998 (US Department of Energy

international monitoring system for global ban on nuclear testing
INTERNATIONAL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR GLOBAL BAN ON NUCLEAR TESTING

Moratoriums on nuclear test explosions have been declared by all five nuclear-weapon States pending entry into force of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty….

Seismic monitors help scientists distinguish between a nuclear explosion and an earthquake.

international monitoring system for global ban on nuclear testing16
INTERNATIONAL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR GLOBAL BAN ON NUCLEAR TESTING

Infrasound monitors detect acoustic waves generated from distant sources, such as chemical and nuclear explosions.

Hydroacoustic monitors register sound signals deep in the ocean.

Radionuclide monitors measure air samples for the presence of radioactive material.

working to eliminate chemical and biological weapons
WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was established to achieve the goals and objectives of the first globally verifiable multilateral disarmament treaty, the Chemical Weapons Convention, to completely prohibit the use, development, production, and stockpiling of chemical weapons, as well as the destruction of existing stocks.

working to eliminate chemical and biological weapons18
WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

Through routine inspections, challenge inspections and investigations of alleged use, the OPCW

  • Ensures the implementation of the conventions provisions
  • Monitors implementation
  • Provides a forum for consultation and cooperation among States Parties.

Chemical weapons inspectors. French troops in Kuwait, 1991

working to eliminate chemical and biological weapons19
WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

Biological Weapons Convention

To ensure compliance with the provisions of the Biological Weapons Convention, the need for global, cooperative compliance and verification measures has become much more acute.

working to eliminate chemical and biological weapons20
WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

Biological Weapons Convention

To bolster confidence in the effectiveness of the Convention, the States parties to the Convention currently exchange information on:

  • Research centres and laboratories;
  • National biological defense research and development programmes;
  • Infectious disease outbreaks;
  • Relevant legislation;
  • Vaccine production
disarmament of conventional weapons
DISARMAMENT OF CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS
  • The first UN Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects adopted in July 2001 a forward-looking programme of action that committed nations, regions and the international Community collectively to:
  • Help to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit trade in small arms.

“Flame of Peace”; a ceremonial destruction of weapons collected from rebels, Timbuktu, Mali

disarmament of conventional weapons22
DISARMAMENT OF CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS
  • Enhance cooperation among states to end illegal transfers and sales.
  • Reduce the accumulation of small arms and light weapons around the world.
  • Encourage the collection and destruction of excess weapons in exchange for development incentives.

Actor Michael Douglas destroying arms in a UN/UNDP pilot “arms for development” project.

Gramsh, Albania. October 1999.

disarmament of conventional weapons23
DISARMAMENT OF CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS

United Nations Register of Conventional Arms promotes trust and confidence through transparency.

More than 90 member states report to the United Nations, other Governments, and to the people every year regarding their imports and exports of major weapons systems.

More than 95% of the trade in tanks, armoured vehicles, combat aircraft, large-caliber artillery, attack helicopters, warships, missiles and missile launchers is covered by the register.

five pillars of mine action
FIVE PILLARS OF MINE ACTION

The UN works in close partnership with Governments, civil society, business and individuals to tackle the landmine crisis.

MINE AWARENESS: Populations at risk must be educated and local authorities trained to deal with landmine problems.

CLEARING A PATH -- DEMINING: Finding and disposing of these devices is time-consuming, difficult and expensive.

Digging for landmines, Cambodia

five pillars of mine action25
FIVE PILLARS OF MINE ACTION

VICTIM ASSISTANCE: Rehabilitation of and care for thousands of maimed, blinded and crippled victims of landmine explosions.

ADVOCACY FOR GLOBAL BAN: Making the ban effective and universal.

STOCKPILE REDUCTION: Keeping to treaty commitments and building confidence in the Convention Banning Landmines.

Learning about landmines, Mozambique, 1994, UN Mine Action Service

timeline of historic treaties and agreements

24 January 1946

First Resolution of the General Assembly seeks ways to eliminate atomic weapons from national armaments

29 July 1957

International Atomic Energy Agency established.

1 December 1959

The Antarctic Treaty demilitarizes the continent, bans the testing of any kind of weapons and prohibits nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material.

5 August 1963

Partial Test-Ban Treaty bans nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and underwater

5 March 1970

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commits nuclear and non-nuclear states to nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear disarmament and the peaceful uses of energy

TIMELINE OF HISTORIC TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS

24 January 1946

First Resolution of the General Assembly seeks ways to eliminate atomic weapons from national armaments

29 July 1957

International Atomic Energy Agency established.

1 December 1959

The Antarctic Treaty demilitarizes the continent, bans the testing of any kind of weapons and prohibits nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material.

5 August 1963

Partial Test-Ban Treaty bans nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and underwater

5 March 1970

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commits nuclear and non-nuclear states to nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear disarmament and the peaceful uses of energy

timeline of historic treaties and agreements27

11 February 1971

The Sea-Bed Treaty bans the emplacement of nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction on the ocean floor and its subsoil

10 April 1972

Biological Weapons Convention bans bacteriological and biological warfare

26 May 1972

SALT I and ABM Treaty Agreement limit strategic offensive arms and anti-ballistic missile systems between the USSR and US

18 June 1979

SALT II further limits strategic offensive arms between USSR and US

10 April 1981

Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons bans weapons which explode fragments that are by X-ray undetectable within the human body, limits the use of certain types of mines and booby traps, bans incendiary weapons designed to set fire to targets and bans the use of blinding laser weapons

TIMELINE OF HISTORIC TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS

10 April 1981

Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons bans weapons which explode fragments that are by X-ray undetectable within the human body, limits the use of certain types of mines and booby traps, bans incendiary weapons designed to set fire to targets and bans the use of blinding laser weapons

11 February 1971

The Sea-Bed Treaty bans the emplacement of nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction on the ocean floor and its subsoil

10 April 1972

Biological Weapons Convention bans bacteriological and biological warfare

26 May 1972

SALT I and ABM Treaty Agreement limit strategic offensive arms and anti-ballistic missile systems between the USSR and US

18 June 1979

SALT II further limits strategic offensive arms between USSR and US

timeline of historic treaties and agreements28

8 December 1987

INF Treaty eliminates entire category of intermediate and shorter-range nuclear weapons of the USSR and US

19 November 1990

CFE Treaty curtails conventional weapons systems in Europe from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains

31 July 1991

START I Treaty reduces strategic nuclear weapons to 6,000 for USSR and US

23 May 1992

Lisbon Protocol Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine -- successor states to USSR -- accede to START I

3 January 1993

Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits chemical warfare and provides for destruction of all stocks

TIMELINE OF HISTORIC TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS

8 December 1987

INF Treaty eliminates entire category of intermediate and shorter-range nuclear weapons of the USSR and US

19 November 1990

CFE Treaty curtails conventional weapons systems in Europe from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains

31 July 1991

START I Treaty reduces strategic nuclear weapons to 6,000 for USSR and US

23 May 1992

Lisbon Protocol Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine -- successor states to USSR -- accede to START I

3 January 1993

Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits chemical warfare and provides for destruction of all stocks

timeline of historic treaties and agreements29

24 September 1996

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear test explosions in all environments for all time

2-4 December 1997

Mine Ban Convention bans all anti-personnel landmines and provides for their destruction

TIMELINE OF HISTORIC TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS

24 September 1996

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear test explosions in all environments for all time

2-4 December 1997

Mine Ban Convention bans all anti-personnel landmines and provides for their destruction

keeping the world outer space free of nuclear weapons

The 1959 Antarctic Treaty demilitarizes the continent and bans the testing of nuclear devices and the placement of radioactive waste.

The 1967 Outer Space Treaty mandates that nuclear weapons not be placed or tested in outer space or on the moon.

The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco prohibits nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

The 1986 Treaty of Rarotonga declares the South Pacific a nuclear-free zone

The 1996 Pelindaba Treaty declares the African continent a nuclear-weapon-free zone

The 1997 Bangkok Treaty declares Southeast Asia a nuclear-weapon-free zone

In 1998, the General Assembly recognizes Mongolia’s declaration of its nuclear-weapon-free status.

KEEPING THE WORLD-- OUTER SPACE --FREE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS

The 1967 Outer Space Treaty mandates that nuclear weapons not be placed or tested in outer space or on the moon.

The 1959 Antarctic Treaty demilitarizes the continent and bans the testing of nuclear devices and the placement of radioactive waste.

The 1986 Treaty of Rarotonga declares the South Pacific a nuclear-free zone

The 1996 Pelindaba Treaty declares the African continent a nuclear-weapon-free zone

The 1997 Bangkok Treaty declares Southeast Asia a nuclear-weapon-free zone

In 1998, the General Assembly recognizes Mongolia’s declaration of its nuclear-weapon-free status.

The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco prohibits nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean -

global priorities

Stabilize Population $ 10.5 BILLION

Provide Safe, Clean Water $ 10 BILLION

Prevent Acid Rain $ 8 BILLION

Prevent Global Warming $ 8 BILLION

Eliminate Nuclear Weapons $ 7 BILLION

Stop Deforestation $ 7 BILLION

Stop Ozone Depletion $ 5 BILLION

Refugee Relief $ 5 BILLION

Eliminate Illiteracy $ 5 BILLION

Build Democracy $ 2 BILLION

Remove Land Mines$ 2 BILLION

GLOBAL PRIORITIES
global priorities32

Annual World

Military Expenditures

$ 800 BILLION

Provide Clean, Safe Energy $ 50 BILLION

Retire Developing Nations’ Debt $ 30 BILLION

Prevent Soil Erosion $ 24 BILLION

Provide Health Care and AIDS Control $ 21 BILLION

Provide Shelter $ 21 BILLION

Eliminate Starvation and Malnutrition $ 19 BILLION

GLOBAL PRIORITIES
overspending on weapons vs people

Annual World

Military Expenditures

$ 800 BILLION

Provide Clean, Safe Energy $ 50 BILLION

$ 30 BILLION Retire Developing Nations’ Debt

Prevent Soil Erosion $ 24 BILLION

$ 21 BILLION Provide Health Care and AIDS Control

Provide Shelter $ 21 BILLION

$ 19 BILLION Eliminate Starvation and Malnutrition

Stabilize Population $ 10.5 BILLION

$ 10 BILLION Provide Clean, Safe Water

Prevent Acid Rain $ 8 BILLION

$ 8 BILLION Prevent Global Warming

Eliminate Nuclear Weapons $ 7 BILLION

$ 7 BILLION Stop Deforestation

Stop Ozone Depletion $ 5 BILLION

$ 5 BILLION Refugee Relief

Eliminate Illiteracy$ 5 BILLION

$ 2 BILLION Build Democracy

Remove Landmines$ 2 BILLION

OVERSPENDING ON WEAPONS vs people

GLOBAL PRIORITIES

peace and security through disarmament34

Peace and Security throughDISARMAMENT

For more information please visit the United Nations Disarmament Website

http://disarmament.un.org

enquiries by email: ddaweb@un.org