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Michigan State University. 125 years of science for America. Michigan State University. USGS Monitoring. RASA Studies. Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project. Wellogic Lithology. Local Studies. Aquifer Tests. Geologic Maps. Hydrogeology, Mapping,

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Michigan State University

125 years of sciencefor America

Michigan State University

USGS

Monitoring

RASA

Studies

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

Wellogic

Lithology

Local

Studies

Aquifer

Tests

Geologic

Maps

Hydrogeology, Mapping,

Geostatistics & Geographic databases

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

overview
In August 2003, the Michigan Legislature passed Public Acts 148 and 177.

PA 148 requires that a groundwater inventory and map be generated for the State by August 2005.

PA 177 set up a procedure to address groundwater-withdrawal conflicts in the State.

Overview

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

pa 148
“... the department shall collect and compile groundwater data into a statewide groundwater inventory and map.”Sec. 32802 (1)

“The department shall make the statewide groundwater inventory and map available to the general public.”Sec. 32802 (2)

The project team

MDEQ

U.S. Geological Survey

Michigan State University

PA 148

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

project leaders
Dr. Howard W. ReevesUSGS

Research Hydrologist

Dr. David P. LuschSenior Research Specialist MSU - RS&GIS Research & Outreach Services, Geography - Institute of Water Research

Steve A. Miller, PESpecialist MSU - BioSystems and Agricultural Engineering

Brant Fisher, PE and Joseph LovatoMDEQ Water Bureau, Groundwater Section

Project Leaders

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide5

PA 148, Sec. 32802 (1)

Location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state.

Aquifer recharge rates in the state, if available to the department.

Static water levels of groundwater in the state

Base flow of rivers and streams in the state.

Conflict areas in the state.

Surface waters, including designated trout lakes and streams, and groundwater dependent natural resources, that are identified on the natural features inventory.

The location and pumping capacity of all of the following:

(i) Industrial or processing facilities registered under section 32705 that withdraw groundwater.

(ii) Irrigation facilities registered under section 32705 that

withdraw groundwater.

(iii) Public water supply systems that have the capacity to

withdraw over 100,000 gallons of groundwater per day

average in any consecutive 30-day period.

Aggregate agricultural water use and consumptive use, by township.

The department shall include data on all of the following in the statewide groundwater inventory and map:

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

scientific challenges

How to define aquifers Statewide – especially for glacial deposits.

  • How to combine information from a variety of sources at different spatial scales.
  • How to express uncertainty.
  • How to express water yielding capability
    • Typical observed yield
    • Maximum potential yield
    • Yield based on drawdown constraints
    • Ecological or water-balance constraints

Data and

analysis

needs

increase

Scientific Challenges

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

approach
Identify and compile major data sources for each required element.

Assemble inventory for incorporation into a database accessible through an internet and an ArcIMS web site for map presentation.

Subdivide aquifer analysis to identify bedrock aquifers and water yield from glacial deposits.

Treat glacial deposits as single aquifer unit with varying properties.

Approach

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

presentation sequence
Straightforward mapping issues.

Base flow and recharge issues.

Static-water-level mapping.

Aquifer and water-yield mapping.

Presentation of results to the public.

Presentation Sequence

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

straightforward mapping issues
Conflict areas in the state.

Surface waters, including designated trout lakes and streams, and groundwater dependent natural resources, that are identified on the natural features inventory.

The location and pumping capacity of all of the following:

(i) Industrial or processing facilities registered under section 32705 that withdraw groundwater.

(ii) Irrigation facilities registered under section 32705 that withdraw groundwater.

(iii) Public water supply systems that have the capacity to withdraw over 100,000 gallons of groundwater per day average in any consecutive 30-day period.

Aggregate agricultural water use and consumptive use, by township.

Straightforward Mapping Issues

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

e conflict areas in the state
Data Sources

Conflicts reported to MDEQ through PA 177.

Limitations

Groundwater “conflicts” can occur for variety of reasons.

For example, the “conflict” regarding the Nestle Ice Mountain bottling in Mecosta County is not due to the impact of the withdrawal on nearby wells as defined in PA 177. This type of “conflict” will not be mapped.

(e) Conflict areas in the state

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

e conflict areas in the state1
(e) Conflict areas in the state

PA 177 (Public Acts of 2003) was in effect for well owners in Fremont, Richland, Lakefield, and Jonesfield townships of Saginaw County and throughout Monroe County through June 30, 2004. PA 177 became effective statewide on July 1, 2004.

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

e conflict areas in the state2
(e) Conflict areas in the state
  • PA 177 Groundwater Dispute Complaints Filed

(10/1/03 - 1/11/05)

County Nature No. of Complaints

VERIFIED COMPLAINTS

Agricultural Irrigation

Saginaw

8

Limestone Quarry

Dewatering

Monroe

14

UNVERIFIED / DISMISSED COMPLAINTS

1

Agricultural Irrigation

Gratiot

Macomb

1

Construction Dewatering

3

Charlevoix

Cement Plant

1

Kent

Golf Course

1

Genesee

Aggregate Pit

Construction Dewatering

1

Total 30

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

f designated trout lakes and streams and groundwater dependent natural resources
Data Sources

Natural Features Inventory (MNFI)

MDNR

Limitations

Other ecological settings and other fisheries depend on groundwater and these will not be noted on this map.

The site-specific role of groundwater in most ecological settings is unknown.

(f) ...designated trout lakes and streams, and groundwater dependent natural resources...

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

f designated trout lakes and streams and groundwater dependent natural resources1
(f) ...designated trout lakes and streams, and groundwater dependent natural resources...

Under the authority of sections 41103, 48701, and 48716 of Act 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, as amended, the Director of the Department of Natural Resources established these stream and lake classifications on October 10, 2003 to be in effect for five years.

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

g the location and pumping capacity of all of the following
Data Sources

MDEQ Water Use Reporting Program

Limitations

Industries, non-farm irrigators and public water supplies report use, not capacity.

Some of these facilities have many wells spread over a large area (e.g. Lansing has 127 wells).

The contribution to the total from each well is not provided.

This lack of specific pumping information for individual wells limits the usefulness of this information to regional assessment rather than site-specific studies.

(g) The location and pumping capacity of all of the following…

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

h aggregate agricultural water use and consumptive use by township
Data Sources

MDA for irrigation use reported under PA 148 Sec. 32708

MDEQ for irrigation use reported under PA 148 Sec. 32707

MDEQ Water Use Program in conjunction with MSU extension and MSU irrigation estimation procedures

Limitations

The township aggregation limits the usefulness of these data to regional assessment rather than site-specific studies.

Consumptive use is difficult to assess without site-specific studies on individual farms.

Use vs. capacity

(h) Aggregate agricultural water use and consumptive use, by township.

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

d base flow of rivers and streams in the state
Data Sources

Estimate published by U.S. Geological Survey (1996)

National base flow index published by U.S. Geological Survey (2003)

Updated estimate being made for Great Lakes Basin by U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada

MDNR Fisheries Division estimate

Limitations

Statistical correlations are required to estimate base flow for the ungaged basins.

Regulation by dams, water discharge by waste water treatment plants, and other factors impact stream-flow records, making base-flow estimates difficult to compute.

(d) Base flow of rivers and streams in the state

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide18

Base flow Index at

individual stream gages

(Base Flow Index = ratio

of base flow to total

annual flow)

Estimated base flow index

by watershed

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

b aquifer recharge rates in the state if available to the department
Data Sources

Typically, recharge is estimated from base flow: long-term base flow is recharge to groundwater basin.

1996 USGS Estimate

Updated estimate will be derived from base flow determined in USGS & Environment Canada project.

USGS Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study for bedrock aquifers.

Limitations

Estimate is based on base flow from streams, which gives recharge primarily to glacial deposits not bedrock aquifers.

RASA modeling study only for Lower Peninsula, predevelopment conditions (no pumping), and small-scale.

(b) Aquifer recharge rates in the state, if available to the department.

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

c static water levels of groundwater in the state
Data Sources

Hydrography from Center for Geographic Information (MDIT)

Soils maps (USDA, NRCS)

Wetlands (National Wetlands Inventory)

Water levels reported in Wellogic database

USGS RASA study (bedrock aquifers)

Limitations

Water levels are not temporally static – in addition to the map, we will provide hydrographs showing the temporal variation in groundwater levels.

Detailed soils maps do not exist for all counties.

Bedrock coverage is poor outside of the central Lower Peninsula.

(c) Static water levels of groundwater in the state

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide22

Shows period of record and summary plot for 5-day moving average shown as water year.

average – 1 sd

5-day moving average

Summary plot showing current condition relative to the historic trend.

average + 1 sd

Water levels are not temporally static!

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

first water surface
Information from various sources is combined to estimate the water-level elevation in the shallow glacial deposits.

Originally estimated for the Source Water Assessment Project to allow MDEQ and local health departments to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to surface spills or other potential contaminant sources.

Updated with new soils and Wellogic data in this project.

Over much of the state, this is a reasonable estimate of the water table. In some areas, the mapped water level is for a perched system that is separated from a more extensive regional glacial aquifer.

The term “First Water Surface” is used to denote the elevation of the water table or perched system.

First Water Surface

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide24

First Water Surface

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state
Data Sources

Wellogic water well record database (MDEQ)

MDEQ public water supply aquifer-test database

Aquifer-test database compiled from MDNR records by USGS as part of RASA study

Aquifer properties reported in the literature

U.S. Geological Survey reports

MDNR reports

Other published sources

Location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state1
Limitations

We lack a large-scale, 3-D geologic framework to derive the hydrogeology of the glacial deposits that cover most of the state (Glacial Landsystems map provides a small-scale 1:500K, 2-D framework).

Water well records in the Wellogic database have varying degrees of detail and quality, but do provide our best third-dimension view of the drift.

Public water supply aquifer tests tend to be available for wells that have sufficient yield for a municipal supply. Hence, this dataset is biased against wells with low - moderate yields (i.e. typical residential wells).

Location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide28

A geologic framework for glacial hydrogeology.

This map depicts the major glacial depositional environments of Michigan.

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state2
Location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide30

Bedrock Wells

27% (75,395)

of the qualified

Wellogic records

282,802 qualified Wellogic records (i.e. contain geolocation & good lithology data)

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state3
Location and water yielding capabilities of aquifers in the state

The broad patterns of the glacial aquifers have been agreed to for many years

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide32

73% (207,407)

of the qualified

Wellogic records

282,802 qualified Wellogic records (i.e. contain geolocation & good lithology data)

Glacial Wells

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

yield mapping
Required Aquifer properties

Transmissivity

Storativity

Yield Mapping

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide34

>100,000 mg / l

>1,000 to <100,000 mg / l

Marshall Aquifer

Saginaw-Parma Aquifer

Bedrock Aquifer Transmissivity

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide35

Transmissivity of the Drift Package

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

public availability
Public Availability
  • “The department shall make the statewide groundwater inventory and map available to the general public.” P.A. 148, Sec. 32802 (2)
  • The team will meet this mandate using Internet delivery technology.

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide37

Public Availability

  • http://gwmap.rsgis.msu.edu

Introductory

material

Interactive map

Links to background

material

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide38

Link to USGS Observation Well Network

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide39

Observation well influenced by

irrigation wells

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide40

Zoom in on water well

in Kalamazoo County

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide41

When map scale is appropriate, the location of wells with records in the Wellogic database may be shown.

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide42

Selecting a well on the map queries the Wellogic database via the www

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide43

Public Availability

  • http://gwmap.rsgis.msu.edu

Access to the “value-added” WELLOGIC data

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide44

Public Availability

  • http://gwmap.rsgis.msu.edu

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide45

From WELLOGIC well record pdf

Lithology information in the Wellogic database is also available

Note the value-added fields

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

new web resources
All the maps developed by the project (with metadata) will be available on-line at the project web site.

Our inventory of groundwater data will also be available on-line in a searchable database.

Hard-to-find reports will be scanned and made available (as .pdf files) through the project web site.

Data about aquifer properties will be available with references back to the original source.

New Web Resources

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide47

New Web Resources

Example:

Search for data from Baraga County

Baraga

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project

slide48

New Web Resources

Groundwater Inventory and Mapping Project