off shore wind energy in the u s cape wind project the first off shore wind project in the u s l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Off-Shore Wind Energy in the U.S. Cape Wind Project The First Off-shore Wind Project in the U.S. PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Off-Shore Wind Energy in the U.S. Cape Wind Project The First Off-shore Wind Project in the U.S.

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 44

Off-Shore Wind Energy in the U.S. Cape Wind Project The First Off-shore Wind Project in the U.S. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 238 Views
  • Uploaded on

Off-Shore Wind Energy in the U.S. Cape Wind Project The First Off-shore Wind Project in the U.S. Angeline R. Babel a ngeline.babel@gmail.com Energy Law Fall 2010. Outline. Wind Energy Offshore Wind Energy Challenges for Wind Projects Cape Wind Project

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Off-Shore Wind Energy in the U.S. Cape Wind Project The First Off-shore Wind Project in the U.S.' - liam


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
off shore wind energy in the u s cape wind project the first off shore wind project in the u s

Off-Shore Wind Energy in the U.S. Cape Wind ProjectThe First Off-shore Wind Project in the U.S.

Angeline R. Babel

angeline.babel@gmail.com

Energy Law Fall 2010

outline
Outline
  • Wind Energy
  • Offshore Wind Energy
  • Challenges for Wind Projects
  • Cape Wind Project
  • Lessons from the Cape Wind Project
  • Conclusions
u s energy supply 2009
U.S. Energy Supply (2009)
  • Wind Power only accounts for about 2% of the electricity generated in the U.S.
  • 0% wind power is from offshore wind farms
slide4
U.S. policy is moving towards reducing dependence on fossil fuels and using energy sources that reduce green house gas emissions
20 wind energy by 2030
20% Wind Energy by 2030
  • 2006 President Bush emphasized greater energy efficiency and diversified energy portfolio
  • 2008 Release of “20% Wind Energy Scenario” study by U.S. Department of Energy
benefits of wind energy
Benefits of Wind Energy
  • Inexhaustible supply of wind
  • No green house gas emission
  • Have the technology now
  • Reduces reliance on imported fuels
  • Competitively priced with standard fuel sources
offshore benefits
Offshore Benefits
  • More power than land based
    • Steady wind - “sea breeze effect” and less turbulence
    • Larger turbines
  • Less wear and tear on turbines
  • Peak energy generation occurs during peak demand
  • Energy source close to energy demand
offshore wind projects have been used for over a decade in other countries
Offshore Wind Projects have been used for over a decade in other countries
  • Europe generates over 2 GW
challenges to wind power
Challenges to Wind Power
  • Challenges common to land-based and offshore
    • Sound/Vibration
    • “Flickering”- (Light reflecting from Sun)
    • Aesthetics
    • Loss of property value
    • Environmental impact
  • Challenges unique to offshore
    • Navigation concerns
    • Fishing/Coastal environment
nuisance law
Nuisance Law
  • D’s conduct must “cause significant harm to the plaintiff’s private use and enjoyment of land, and the conduct must be either intentional and unreasonable or unintentional and negligent, reckless, or abnormally dangerous”
    • Restatement (Second) of Torts §§§821D, 821F, 822 (1979)
  • Examples include “pollution, noise, odors, vibrations…[and] excessive light” (1)
  • Nuisance must be of an “unreasonable” magnitude
small scale wind 1 turbine nuisance suits
Small-scale Wind (1 turbine) Nuisance suits
  • Noise/Vibration
    • Must be of “sufficient intensity” to meet the standard of unreasonable interference
  • Small-scale Wind Project Suits
    • Rose v. Chaikin
      • Enjoined the construction of a wind turbine 10 feet from property line in a NJ residential neighborhood
    • Rassier v. Houim
      • Dismissed nuisance suit against turbine within 50 ft of neighbors yard, 50-60 decibels
      • Neighbor moved in with turbine already erected and Defendant tried to teach Plaintiff how to turn it off if it was too loud
large scale wind farm nuisance suits
Large Scale Wind Farm Nuisance Suits
  • Burch v. NedPower Mount Storm, LLC (2007)
    • Claim of noise, unsightliness and reduced property value
    • Unsightliness alone does not justify injunction but may be if accompanied by other nuisances
    • Court found that injunctive relief, not just damage liabilty, could have been proper form of relief
  • Case leaves the door open for more nuisance suits
large scale wind farm nuisance suits17
Large Scale Wind Farm Nuisance Suits

Rankin v. FPL Energy, LLC (Texas App. 2008)

  • Alleged aesthetics and emotional impact of aesthetics
  • Court acknowledged Texas case law does not provide authority for aesthetic nuisance claims
cape wind project
Cape Wind Project
  • Proposed by Cape Wind Associates (CWA)
  • 24 square Miles
  • 130 wind turbines
  • At least 5 miles offshore
    • 13.8 miles from Nantucket Island
  • To provide at least 3/4 electricity used on Cape Cod and the Islands
opposition to cape wind project
Opposition to Cape Wind Project
  • Residents of Nantucket
    • The Kennedy’s
    • Bunny Mellon (heiress to Listerine fortune)
    • DuPont
    • Walter Cronkite
  • Former Governor Mitt Romney
  • Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound
  • WalMart
  • Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility
  • Californians for Renewable Energy Inc.!!! (“CARE”)
challenges as applied to cape wind project
Challenges as applied to Cape Wind project

Noise

Aesthetics

Environmental Impact

aesthetics
Aesthetics
  • General Principle: “a thing is not a nuisance merely because it is unsightly, offends the aesthetic sense, makes the vicinity less attractive, or creates mental discomfort”
    • 58 AM. JUR. 2D Nuisances §85 (2009)
aesthetics of cape wind project
Aesthetics of Cape Wind Project

Proposed view from

Conduit (5.6 miles)

aesthetics of cape wind project28
Aesthetics of Cape Wind Project

Proposed view from Edgartown

(9 miles)

aesthetics of cape wind project29
Aesthetics of Cape Wind Project

Proposed view from

Nantucket Island (13.8 miles)

aesthetics of cape wind project30
Aesthetics of Cape Wind Project
  • FAA requires lights to be placed on turbines for aviation safety
  • FAA reduced the number of lights needed from 260 to 57 (spans 24 square miles)
environmental impact of cape wind project
Environmental Impact of Cape Wind Project
  • Federal review- NEPA
    • Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
  • State review- MEPA
    • Environmental Impact Review (EIR)
    • Cape Cod Commission’s Development of Regional Impact (DRI)
  • 2004- Draft Reports stated a compelling public benefit, positive environmental and economic impacts
environment impact birds
Environment Impact: Birds

Erickson et al. (2002)

denmark s study on offshore wind farms
Denmark’s Study on Offshore Wind Farms

Comparative study of pre and post turbine data

denmark s study of offshore wind farms
Denmark’s Study of Offshore Wind Farms
  • Re-align flight patterns to fly between turbines
  • Birds alter migratory pattern to avoid turbines
  • The Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) for monitoring birds

Desholm and Kahler 2005

denmark s study effect on other animals
Denmark’s Study Effect on Other Animals
  • No significant effect on fish
    • Some fish avoided/were attracted to underwater cable
  • Seals did not change behavior due to wind farms
  • Slight decrease in porpoise avoidance was found at one Danish wind farm even after construction finished
challenges as applied to cape wind project36
Challenges as Applied to Cape Wind Project
  • Cape Wind has been held up in courts through many of the federal, state and local requirements
    • Citizen groups have opportunity to challenge the issuance of each individual permit
  • 2 cases have reached the First Circuit Court
cape wind 1 st circuit court cases
Cape Wind 1st Circuit Court Cases
  • Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound, Inc.,v. U.S. Dep’t of Army, 398 F.3d 105, 107 (1st Cir. 2005)
    • Contested Army Corps approval of offshore data collection tower in Horseshoe Shoal
    • Denied
  • Ten Taxpayer Citizens Group v. Cape Wind Assocs., 373 F.3d 184 (1st Cir. 2004)
    • Alleged MA state court had jurisdiction over the project and CWA failed to get necessary permits under state law
cape wind project close to end of regulatory hurdles
Cape Wind Project close to end of regulatory hurdles
  • 2004- DEIS from Army Corp of Engineers
  • 2009- State and Local Approval
  • April 2010- U.S. Dept of Interior Approval
  • May 2010- FAA approves project
  • October 2010- U.S. leases federal lands
  • November 2010- Mass. Dept of Public Utilities approves purchase of wind power for a 15-year contract
but many cases still in the courts
BUT MANY CASES STILL IN THE COURTS
  • June 2010
    • Federal District Court
    • Six groups and three individuals
    • Alleged environmental harm on federally protected migratory birds and possibly whales  
but many cases still in the courts41
BUT MANY CASES STILL IN THE COURTS
  • December 2010
    • (CARE) – Californians for Renewable Energy
    • complaint with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)
    • against National Grid, Cape Wind and the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities for approval of Cape Wind's power purchase agreement 
lessons to be learned
Lessons to Be Learned

A streamlined process for federal, state and local regulation and zoning needs to developed

Guidelines for studying environmental impact should be established

System to comprehensively address local concerns needs to be established

conclusion
Conclusion

Significant social, economic and environmental benefits are obtainable with offshore wind energy

Significant regulatory hurdles are required to development of offshore wind technologies

Comprehensive federal policy is needed to foster the development of offshore wind farms