The Evolution of Leisure, Recreation, and Play Chapter 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. The Evolution of Leisure, Recreation, and PlayChapter 2 HPR 200 Spring 2011

  2. Quiz • Name the three components of leisure. (2 pts) • Name the three ways to conceptualize leisure. (2 pts) • Identify the three components of play. (1 pt)

  3. Elements Perceived freedom Autotelic activity Beneficial outcome Conceptualizations Time Activity State of mind Defining Leisure

  4. Play • Spontaneity • Expressive • Done for its own sake

  5. Questions

  6. Evolution • Continuous change • Worse to better • Simple to more complex

  7. Evolutionary Continuum • Early societies • Old world societies • New world societies • Middle-era societies • Modern societies

  8. Lets talk history… In early cultures and societies, would recreation have been valued? Why or why not? In what forms? How might religion and social hierarchy have been factors? As societies diversified, how did recreation change? “the life of every man…solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” —Hobbes How might this have applied to the ability to recreate?

  9. In the earliest societies Recreation was reserved for the general populations only on special occasions such as religious holidays or feast days. More wealthy members in more complex class systems may have been members of leisure classes.

  10. Early Societies • Fire • Tribes and chiefdoms • Rituals • Taboos • Religion • Primitive states • Leisure class • Amusive leisure

  11. Old World Societies • Mesopotamia • Ancient Egypt • Ancient Israel • Ancient Greece • Ancient Rome

  12. Mesopotamia • Written communication • Wheel • 60-minute hour • 360 degree circle • Code of law • Hanging Gardens of Babylon (key development)

  13. Ancient Egypt • Pharaoh, nobility, craftsmen, peasants • Religious ceremonies • Affluent class engaged in sports

  14. Ancient Israel • Monotheism • Sabbath • Singing and dancing

  15. Ancient Greece • Schole • Olympics • Aristotle

  16. Aristotle’s Three Levels of Leisure Contemplation Recreation Amusement

  17. Ancient Rome • Seized captives • Upper class • 50 to 175 holidays

  18. New World Societies • Mayans • Special festivals • Dramatic performances • Aztecs • Stratified society • Hunting

  19. Middle Era Societies • China • Japan • India • Islam • Europe

  20. China • Affluent class • Peasant class • Leisure class • Fireworks • Novels

  21. Japan • Privileged class • Farmers • Role of women • Samurai • Sumo wrestling

  22. India • Caste system • Wealth = leisure

  23. Islam • Sabbath for recreation and leisure • Large public festivals • Separation between men and women

  24. Europe • European revival • Merchant class • European renaissance • Church of Rome lost power • Exploration by wealthy

  25. Modern Societies • British experience • French experience • German experience • American experience

  26. British • Royalty, aristocrats, and commoners • Second home for leisure • Vacations • Sports

  27. French • 52 sabbaths • 90 rest days • 38 holidays • Monarchy restricted leisure time • Granted public access to estates

  28. German • Turnen • Turnplatz • Christian and pagan holidays • Oktoberfest

  29. American • Puritans • Revolutionary War • YMCA/YMHA • Unique American holidays • Television • Travel