Andy Warhol http://www.warhol.org/http://www.warhol.dk/http://www.warholfoundation.org/ Andy WarholAmerican, born Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1928 - 1987Self-Portrait, 1986Synthetic polymer and silkscreen ink on linen80 x 80 1/4 in. (203.0 x 203.4 cm.)PARTIAL GIFT OF THE ANDY WARHOL FOUNDATION FOR THE VISUAL ARTS AND PARTIAL PURCHASE, SMITHSONIAN COLLECTIONS ACQUISITION PROGRAM AND JOSEPH H. HIRSHHORN BEQUEST FUND, 1995 (95.1)
Andy Warhol : Twenty Jackies (Vingt Jackies) - 1964 - acrylique et Liquitex sur toile, sérigraphieSource de l'image : L'Art Contemporain - Klaus Honnef - édité chez TASCHEN (1994)
Andy Warhol1928-1987Pop Art200 Cans of SoupOther Warhol Images • 200 Cans of Soup by Andy Warhol, Screen print, 1962, 72"x102" Private Collection
Andy Warhol: • Zelene boce Coca Cole, 1962.
KiKi Smith http://www.moma.org/exhibitions/2003/kikismith
Max Beckman http://www.moma.org/exhibitions/2003/beckman.html
Rembrandt 林布蘭 • http://www.mystudios.com/rembrandt/rembrandt-paintings-young-man.html • http://www.mystudios.com/rembrandt/rembrandt-index.html • When scholars began to study Rembrandt in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries they were surprised by the large number of self portraits. It was discovered that he had painted himself on at least forty occasions, had etched himself thirty-one times, and made a handful of drawings. This segment of his oeuvre is unique in art history, not only in its scale and the length of time it spans, but also in its regularity. New self portraits appeared almost annually, and sometimes several times a year. The magnificent variety of both painted and etched self portraits demonstrates that Rembrandt saw them as experimental forcing-grounds for his painterly and graphic adventures. • The works in this exhibit were chosen to show the development of Rembrandt's style from his early days in Leiden to his last days in Amsterdam. For this exhibit the self portraits have been divided into three sections. The paintings section contains fourteen paintings with Rembrandt alone. The scenes section has five paintings with Rembrandt in costume. The last section contains eight self portrait etchings. • Rembrandt occupies his very own place among Dutch seventeenth-century painters. Through out the years his technique changed, but his style remained personal and recognizable. He had many pupils to whom he taught his 'manner', as well as followers who attempted to learn and assimilate by themselves. The stories told about Rembrandt and his studio prove very clearly, that Rembrandt made a unique impression on those who came to work with him. He inspired his pupils with his openness to bring out their individual capabilities so each painter would ultimately find his own way. • In order to provide an accurate record as possible of all the important dates in Rembrandt's life, from his birth to his burial in a rented grave numerous sources were researched.
RembrandtSelf Portrait as a Young Man1628oil on panel, 22.5x18.6cmRijksmuseum, Amsterdam • The face is largely in the shadows and the features are hard to make out. Only the ear lobe, a striking element of virtually all Rembrandt's painted self portraits, catches the light. This painting is not a self portrait in the strict sense of the word, but a tronie. A tronie is a Dutch term for a type of picture between a portrait and a history piece. The sitter is portrayed in a particular role, sometmes with the appropiate clothing and props, and his identity is irrelevant.
RembrandtSelf Portrait as a Young Man1629oil on panel, 15.5x17.7cmBayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen • The surprised expression and turned head create the suggestion that Rembrandt caught himself looking in the mirror. The loose brushwork also contributes to the spontaneous impression of this work. Rembrandt has scratched the curly hair into the wet paint exposing the ground layer. This plays an important role in the colouring of the painting. He has succeeded masterfully in creating a great range of hues with a minimal use of color.
RembrandtSelf Portrait with Gorget1629oil on panel, 38.2x31cmGermanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg • This painting has always been thought to be a copy. Then in 1991 at a major Rembrandt exhibit where both paintings were shown side by side for the first time , Claus Grimm surprised the art world when he identified this painting as the original. After a comparison of the two paintings using detailed photos, slides, and a modern scientific examination, the findings confirmed his position. When studying the painting from the Hague (the copy) a preliminary sketch of the subject was found. This has never been seen on a real Rembrandt before.
RembrandtSelf Portrait with Beret and Gold Chain1630-1oil on panel, 69.7x57cmWalker Art Gallery, Liverpool • Judging by the style in which it was painted, this self portrait was painted in 1630 or 1631. This painting could be classified as a transitional work. Rembrandt has used his own face to experiment with the play of light but in contrast to earlier pieces he has taken pains to depict himself recognizably. From an inventory of the Royal Family done around 1639, we know that Charles I owned this picture titled: "being his owne picture & done by himself in a Black capp and furrd habbitt with a little goulden chaine uppon both his Shouldrs In an Ovall and square black frame". After Charles' beheading the picture has auctioned to Major Bass. It was not until 1935 that the self portrait was identified based on the description and dimensions found in the inventory records.
RembrandtSelf Portrait Wearing a Hat1632oil on panel, 21.8x16.3cmPrivate Collection • This painting has only recently been recognized as a Rembrandt. Scholars in the past rejected the work because of its unusual small size and weakness in execution. But scientific analysis has shown the panel to come from the same tree as the Portrait of Maurtis Huygens, which shows that it was produced in Rembrandt's workshop. The signature was written while the paint was still wet and the attire was used in other Rembrandt works. This painting also suffers from over cleaning and retouching which would explain the weaknesses in execution.
RembrandtSelf Portrait1640oil on canvas, 93x80cmNational Gallery, London • Rembrandt painted this self portrait at the height of his success. The pose resembles a self portrait done by Durer in 1498. The body is turned more towards the viewer and the entire arm rests on the balustrade. The face is painted in short, regular brush strokes. Each hair of the moustache is rendered separately and his hair is shorter from the previous year giving him a more dignified look. Rembrandt has dressed himself as a master from bygone days, but he has managed above all to remain himself.
RembrandtSelf Portrait1642oil on panel, 69.9x58.4cmThe Royal Collection, London • Having been written off as a Rembrandt in 1982, this painting has made a remarkable comeback. Even though little of the original paint can be seen today, a detailed examination has revealed that below the over painting lies an authentic self portrait. Three stages of this painting can be distinguished; • the panel was first used in Rembrandt's shop, maybe by a pupil • paint was partially scraped off and a second version was painted in 1642 • then a third painting was painted by another hand over the second • The later over painting done at a unknown date can be recognized by a difference in structure and style of painting. Striking enough though, the signature was left untouched and is consistent his his signature at the time.
RembrandtSelf Portrait1652oil on canvas, 112.1x81cmKunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna • In this self portrait Rembrandt appears to have found a fresh inspiration, as this painting is one of his most successful and original. He represents himself in a different way from previous works. Hands on hips, A penetrating gaze that radiates self assurance. The portrait extends below the waist and much of the picture is taken up by clothing. The brown robe is probably working attire, designed mainly to be piratical and comfortable.
RembrandtSelf Portrait1658oil on canvas, 131x102cmFrick Collection, New York • The size and monumentality combined with painting technique make this piece, beyond doubt the most impressive of Rembrandt's self portraits. The work is life sized and it seems he has depicted himself as a famous painter from the past. The paint surface is extremely complex in which the paint was applied in several successive layers.
RembrandtSelf Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (right)1659oil on canvas, 84.4x66cmNational Gallery of Art, Washington • A right-handed painter such as Rembrandt would most likely place a mirror to the left of the easel so that his painting hand would not block his view. Rembrandt changed this time and painted himself on the right of the canvas. This reversal give us us a different view of his face. There is a slight blemish on his cheek and in this lighting he is noticeably hollow-cheeked. The dynamic brushwork in the face, makes a stark contrast with the even strokes used to paint the clothing and background. This is unusual even for a late rembrandt. the unusually free and sketch-like execution has sown some doubts as to the paintings attribution. An explanation might be, that Rembrandt stopped painting at a certain stage in which he usually carried on elaborating details and smoothing over. Rembrandt's biographer, Arnold Houbraken wrote that Rembrandt's motto was 'that a work is finished when the master has achieved his intention in it'.
RembrandtSelf Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (left)1659?oil on canvas, 52.7x42.7cmNational Gallery, Scotland • With the placement of the subject so close to the edge of the painting this self portrait gives the viewer a sense of confrontation with the painter. In comparison to other self portraits, there is an avoidance of strong shadows and the uniform lighting shows every unevenness in the face. This painting was done in less haste than the one in Washington (#10) with the highlights in the hair applied with care. Whatever the differences in the brushwork of the two paintings, they probably stem from the same period, indicate the same aging process, and correspond in terms of clothing.
RembrandtSelf Portrait with Two Circles1665-9oil on canvas, 114.3x94cmKenwood House, London • Few self portraits have appealed to our imagination so much over the centuries as this one. Its not just that this work is monumental and has great pictorial qualities, but also because of the two circles behind the painter. Many explanations have been advanced for this curious background feature. The most plausible argument links the circles to a theory of art, namely the ability to draw a circle freehand as evidence of consummate artistic skill. Because of its closed form, the circle was associated with perfection and eternity, and therefore ideal as a symbol of artistic excellence.
RembrandtSelf Portrait at the Age of 631669oil on canvas, 86x70.5cmNational Gallery, London • The work shown here is from the last year of Rembrandt's life. This fact was only discovered a few decades ago during a restoration. The date is located on the lower left near his back. Rembrandt tackled this piece full of inspiration and verve. He made numerous changes in the course of this work to achieve the best possible result. The fact that he made constant adjustments to this work does not conjure up the image of an artist who has lost his flair. To the aging master, painting was still a creative process, which was not finished until the final brush stroke had been applied.
RembrandtSelf Portrait1669oil on canvas, 63.5x57.8cmThe Hague • The details in this painting suggest that this is Rembrandt's last self portrait. The painter looks somewhat older, his double chin has sagged even more, the cheeks are more sunken, and the gray hair longer. The face is older but it does not show signs of mental decline as some earlier authors have suggested. Although parts of this painting have been left at an early stage of completion, the painting as a whole is very impressive. The hat is more like a lopsided turban than anything else. X-radiographs shows he initially planned to give himself a white cap. In several other self portraits, he also painted over this white cap. One gets the impression that Rembrandt painted what he saw in the mirror and then after he decided how to portray himself the cap would be replaced.