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Topics: Overview of the writing process Writer’s Workshop model Where do I need help? (board) Informal to formal language Complete Sentence Construction Zone Spelling Suggestions Story summary

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introduction to the writing process a workshop for teacher aides

Topics:

Overview of the writing process

Writer’s Workshop model

Where do I need help? (board)

Informal to formal language

Complete Sentence Construction Zone

Spelling Suggestions

Story summary

Trait-based writing instruction

Reading comprehension strategies

Word Walls

Introduction to the Writing ProcessA Workshop for Teacher Aides

Presented by Amy Benjamin

www.amybenjamin.com

Any of the visuals in today’s presentation

are available to you on the “Recent Presentations”

link of the above website.

slide3

Questions, Issues, Concerns, Interests for today:

Strategies for writing complete sentences

for motivating children to want to write

Generating creative writing: making children’s ideas more interesting

“I don’t know what to write.”

“I write the way I speak.”

Focus: Staying on task

Knowing how to summarize

Spelling

Grammar

Formulating effective writing tasks

slide4

Effective vs. Ineffective writing tasks

Ineffective: Write a report about elephants

Pick a state and write a report about it

Effective: Combines and specifies the topic so that it is not “cut and paste-able”

(involves some original thinking)

Effective: Blends the child’s experience and knowledge with new knowledge that

he or she must acquire in order to do the writing task

Effective writing task: Uses a carefully chosen task verb that the child understands

Explain, describe, persuade, convince, compare, tell about,

summarize

Effective writing tasks:

Call upon children to write in various genres for various audiences

(reports, letters, lists, skits, poems, stories, persuasives)

slide5

Three Major Purposes for Writing (and Reading)

P: Persuasion: Persuade your parents to buy you another Webkin

Persuade the principal to allow you to have Webkin Awareness Day in school

I: Information:

All About Webkins

The Parents’ Guide to Webkin World

The History of Webkins

E: Entertainment

A Tale of Two Webkins

The Scarlet Webkin

S: Social communication

IM ur BFF about Webkins

Elephants

Cars

Dinosaurs

Sports

Video games

Webkinz

slide6

Crafting a writing task:

(Sentence 1: Set the scene) Your teacher has asked you to recommend

a field trip for the class. (Sentence 2: Set the task: purpose and audience)

Write a letter to your teacher explaining your

reasons why the class should take a field trip to the Bronx Zoo.

(Sentence 3: set out specifics) In your letter, be sure to give at least two

reasons why this trip would be educational and fun.

Other suggestions:

Word bank of about 10 words (nouns, verbs, adjectives)

Information source (book, website, conversation with adult)

One or two sentence frames

slide7

Word Bank:

THE….

CAN…

VERY…

slide8

Sentence Frames:

I think____________________because________________.

If__________________, then_____________________.

slide9

THE WRITING PROCESS:

Pre-writing

experience:

(non-sentence

form)

Drafting

Revising

Publication

Editing

Point of

intervention

for surface

error correction

Point of

intervention for

substantial language

improvement

writer s workshop model
Writer’s Workshop Model

Students have open flexible time (usually about forty minutes each day, three

or four days a week) for writing.

Students design their own writing program, with help from the teacher.

Topics, form, and format are chosen by the student.

Students draft several pieces, and then choose one of their drafts to take through

the remaining phases of the writing process (…revision, editing, publication)

Revision: Peer readers respond to the draft

Editing: With teacher assistance

Publication: Copied neatly or typewritten; illustrated; displayed or published

in a book; student sits in the “Author’s Chair” and reads his

or her piece to an audience

How is your writing class similar

to/different from this model?

What might you like to adapt?

Based on Lucy Calkins’ model from The Art of Teaching Writing

where do i need help
Where do I need help?

Answering

the question

Organizing my

ideas

Getting Started;

Writing the introduction

Development

Vocabulary

Writing the Conclusion

Capitalizing

Using punctuation

Spelling

Writing neatly and

clearly

where do i need help12
Where do I need help?

Getting Started: What do

I do first?

Answering

the question

Putting it in order

What more can I say?

Vocabulary

How do I end?

Capitalizing

Using punctuation

Spelling

Writing neatly and

clearly

where do i need help13
Where do I need help?

Check ONE:

Doing what the question asks me to do and staying on the topic_____

Beginning___________

Thinking of enough things to say_______

Putting my ideas in order___________

Writing complete sentences__________; End punctuation for each sentence_____

Using interesting words____________ Capital letters for the start of each

sentence____________

Ending_____________

slide14

Students struggle with going from speech

to writing, and then from informal

to formal style.

informal and formal

Handout: Page 11

Informal and Formal

briefcase

dress shoes

sit-down restaurant

football on the team

lunch

cooking, baking, roasting

backpack

flip-flops

McDonald’s

frisbee on the

lawn

snack

zapping/nuking

informal and formal english17
Informal and formal English

got, gotta

hafta

gonna

wanna

lemme

woulda, shoulda,

coulda

cuz

have, have to

going to

want to

let me

would have, should have,

could have

because

informal and formal english18
Informal and formal English

E-language:

OMG

LOL

BRB

JK

IDK

IDC

WTF

U

R

2

G2G

B

Well,

slide19

Problem-Solver: Student writing

When my students

(mistakenly) write

this:

and I want them

(instead) to write

this:

Here is what I might suggest:

“House rule”

And…And…And

Then…Then…Then

Vary their sentence

beginnings

Begin every sentence with a

DIFFERENT word (no repeats)

Use “Well,…” only when you have

quotation marks (in a story)

Well,….

Begin sentence

with and, but, so

Once a week: You may begin

one sentence with and, but, so

once a week (for emphasis)

If a sentence begins with because,

then that sentence must have two

parts. BECAUSE part

GUESS WHAT? part

Sentence fragment

that begins with

because…

Complete sentence

slide20

Spelling Steps:

  • Look at the word. See the letters in it and think about what
  • the word means
  • 2. Say the word. Hear the vowel and consonant sounds.
  • 3. Think about the word. How is each sound spelled? Look for
  • any prefixes, suffixes, or word parts that
  • tell you the meaning.
  • 4. Find groups of letters that go together in the word.
  • 5. Write the word in the air with your arm straight out.
  • 6. Close your eyes and see the word in your mind’s eye.
  • 7. Write the word just by remembering how it looked. Form the
  • letters carefully as you write.
  • 8. Check the word. Did you spell it correctly? If not, notice what
  • part you got wrong. Start over.

say

close your

eyes

look

think

find

air-write

6

2

3

5

1

4

write

check

7

8

slide21

Homophones: The Substitution System

There

√Their

They’re

The substitution for THEIR is HIS:

Their

His

house is next to our house..

The Wilsons keep dog inside a fence.

their

his

All students should be respectful to bus drivers .

their

his

slide22

Homophones: The Substitution System

√There

Their

They’re

The substitution for THERE is HERE:

There

Here

is a big truck parked outside our house.

Please put the candy over

there

Here

We expected some friends to meet us at six o’clock.

there

Here

slide23

Homophones: The Substitution System

There

Their

√They’re

The substitution for THEY’RE is THEY ARE:

They are

They’re

moving into the house next door..

They are

I saw that training a new puppy.

they’re

Sometimes, not happy.

they’re

They are

slide24

Homophones: The Substitution System

√Your

You’re

If you can substitute HIS, use YOUR:

Your

His

mother is calling you on your cell phone.

Get to know the children in

your

his

class.

Introduce me to friends.

your

his

ITS/IT’s works the same way.

YOUR: substitute HIS

slide26

Can you

add a “Stick-on” question?

Isn’t it?

Aren’t we?

Don’t you?

Declarative Sentences

Can you turn it into

a yes/no question?

Can you put

It is true that….

in front of it?

Complete

Sentence

(or “I intend to prove that…”

or “They believed the idea that…”)

Predicate “wheel”:

What about it?

Subject “wheel”:

Who or what?

a complete sentence can be turned into a yes no question
A complete sentence can be turned into a yes/no question:
  • You used to work at Sears.
  • You’ve never worked at Sears.
  • I’ve seen you before.
  • That cute little light green house

with the dark green shutters in the

middle of town is for sale by owner.

  • Your cousins, the couple with the triplets,

live in New Jersey.

  • You don’t live in New Jersey.
  • This is a great movie.
  • Ron Howard directs terrific movies.
  • All Americans of voting age should vote.

When you used to work at Sears.

Because you used to work at

Sears

If all Americans of voting age

would vote.

A movie directed by Ron Howard.

match the stick on questions
Match the“Stick-On” Questions

Haven’t I?

Doesn’t he?

Aren’t I?

Didn’t you?

Don’t they?

Shouldn’t they?

Don’t I?

Isn’t it?

Isn’t it?

Do you?

Have you?

  • You used to work at Sears.
  • You’ve never worked at Sears.
  • I’ve seen you before.
  • That cute little light green house

with the dark green shutters in the

middle of town is for sale by owner.

  • Your cousins, the couple with the triplets,

live in New Jersey.

  • You don’t live in New Jersey.
  • This is a great movie.
  • Ron Howard directs terrific movies.
  • I think.
  • Therefore I am.
  • All Americans of voting age should vote.
slide29

A sentence has a SUBJECT

and a PREDICATE, like a

bicycle has two wheels

(see next slide)

Subordinating conjunctions: AAAWWUBBIS:

although, as, after

while, when

until

because, before

if

since

Phrase: part of a sentence

Out of the words,

students make

phrases;

Out of the phrases,

students make

sentences;

Out of the sentences,

students make

subordinate clauses;

Out of the subordinate clauses,

students make complex

sentences

Sentence: You can put the

words “IT IS TRUE THAT…”

in front of words that make a

sentence;

To create a complex sentence:

The “basket” (subordinate clause) can

be placed on the back of the bike

(no comma necessary) or on the

front of the bike (needs a comma).

slide30

Gardening is my favorite weekend activity because I like worms.

,

Because I like worms gardening is my favorite activity.

What about it? (predicate wheel)

Who or what? (subject wheel)

M

Gardening is my favorite activity on a rainy day because I like worms.

(add modifiers: When? Where? Why? How? To What Extent?)

the sentence making kit
The Sentence-Making Kit

Fold a 5 x 8 index card in half, width-wise:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Write your four cues that will help you recognize a complete sentence:

1. It is true that…

2. The bicycle: Who or what? What about it? (2 wheels)

3. Can you turn it into a yes/no question?

4. Can you add a “stick-on” (tag) question to the end of it?

the sentence making kit32
The Sentence-Making Kit

On the inside of the card:

AAAWWUBBIS:

although, as, after

while, when

until

because, before

if, since

If a sentence begins

with any of these words,

it must have two parts.

Place a comma between

the two parts if one of

these words begins

the sentence.

These words, plus the comma, may join

two sentences. Writers sometimes begin

sentences with these words if they are

doing so for emphasis.

,and

,but

,so

Use as many

ACTION VERBS as possible.

Flip the switch into formal English:

a lot = a great many or a great deal

gonna= going to

wanna= want to

hafta= have to

get,got = become, became, receive

received, obtain, obtained

gotta: must

These words will help you

give detail in your sentences:

Try beginning some of your

sentences with these words:

Use words and groups of words that

answer the ADVERB QUESTIONS:

When? Where? Why? How?

To what extent? How often?

IN FOR

ON WITH

AT

the sentence making kit33
The Sentence-Making Kit

On the back of the card:

Substitutions for homophones and spelling problems:

their = his

there = here

they’re = they are

your = his

you’re = you are

its = his

it’s = it is; it has

woman = man

women = women

I before E except after C

Or when sounded as A

As in neighbor or sleigh

the sentence making kit34
The Sentence-Making Kit

On the back of the card:

The CVC rule

When you hear: shun

You should write: tion, sion

When you hear shul

You should write: cial (special)

Short vowel goes with CK

story summary
Story Summary

Somebody wanted something but, so….

story summary36
Story Summary

so…

wanted

Somebody

but

story summary ii

so…

wanted

Somebody

but

,

,

What went

wrong? What

got in the way?

How did it all

work out?

Who?

Where?

When?

Why?

Story Summary II
story summary ii38
Story Summary II

So…

wanted

Somebody

but

What went

wrong? What

got in the way?

How did it all

work out?

Who?

Where?

When?

Why?

Conflict

Obstacle

Main character

Setting

Resolution

Motivation

kinds of information
Kinds of Information

Verb structures:

What is its action?

What is its nature?

Noun Phrases:

Who?

What?

THE….

CAN…

Adverb structures:

Where?

When?

Why?

In what manner?

How often?

THE________TRUCK is VERY_____________

Adjective Structures

Which one?

What kind?

How many?

trait based writing instruction
Trait-Based Writing Instruction

Trait 1: Ideas, Meaning, Addressing the Task

Trait 2: Organization

Trait 3: Voice

Trait 4: Word Choice

Trait 5: Sentence fluency

Trait 6: Conventions (Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation, Capitalization, Format)

slide41

Trait 1: Ideas, Meaning, Addressing the TaskPrompt: Write a letter to your principal expressing youropinion about a letter to parents that would recommendthat children not be allowed to watch television on school days.

High:

Dear Mrs. Ramariz,

I’m writing to you because you are going to be

writing on a letter that bans children from watching

television on school days, and I’m hoping that

you will change your mind.

Watching TV teaches kids about different

places. We can watch the news to see what is

happening around the world, or we can watch

shows like Zoom and Backyard Jungle. These

shows teach you how to have fun with art,

science, and reading.

Some people think that television is too

violent or scary for kids, but I disagree. It should

be up to parents to know if a show is okay for

a child. They know their kids and can choose

what TV is appropriate for them.

Please don’t write a letter banning television

for kids. Let’s work together to make sure kids are

watching good shows.

From a future voter,

Max

Low:

Dear Mrs. Ramiriz,

I’m writing to you because

this is a bad idea. Kids like

television. We couldn’t just play

outside all the time. It’s cold here

in Yonkers. I have to wear really

warm clothes and boots. And it

gets dark early so we can’t go

sledding very much.

If you write this letter then we

won’t know the price of gas. You

should write a letter about

gas prices . My dad hardly has

any money left after buying gas

for our car. You

could write about that. My

friends and I think that is a better

letter.

Thank you for your time,

Frank B.

trait 2 organization prompt write a story about a family adventure
Trait 2: OrganizationPrompt: Write a story about a family adventure.

High:

I remember the time my grandmother

moved to Texas. Uncle Ted, her son, got a job

there so my grandmother moved from Mount

Vernon to be with him. He’d wrecked his mnotorcycle

and broke his leg in 3 places. The doctor put pins

in his leg which made him hobble and have a hard

time getting around. I think Uncle Ted really

appreciated my grandmother’s help hwile he was

getting better: Before my grandmother moved I helped

her pack and she gave me and my mom some

family treasure.

The trip was hard for my grandmother’s pets. On

the drive to San Antonio, Mo, her dog got sick. They

had to stop in St. Louis to find a vet. She gave the

dog some medicine to cure his carsickness, and she

told my grandmother to stop and let Mo walk outside

as much as she could. This made the trip longer.

The cat yowled a lot, too. My grandmother was happy

when she finally arrived in San Antonio!

My grandmother’s new house is really great. It has

a pool with a diving board and a big fenced yard. Things

are going really well for her now that she’s in Texas.

Low:

Remember the time we moved

to Texas? We were packing things into

boxes and we went down there to pick

up some stuff. My uncles moved with

us, too, but the main reason we were

moving was because my dad got a

job. On the way over, Mo, our dog,

got sick, and we had to find a vet and

get some medicine.

The cat yowled a couple of times

and thaen was quiet. The rest of the

trip was uneventful. Right now my

uncles and Grandma live in a house

in San Antonio. It has a pool and one

diving board. They are very happy

in their new home. We moved back.

slide43

Trait 3: VoicePrompt: Write a report about an animal that interest you. Explain in detail theinteresting feature of this animal and try to get your reader to share yourinterest in it.

High:Fascinating Facts About Emperor Penguins

Penguins don’t have to rent a tuxedo, they are

born with one. But this colorful outfit is more than

cute. It camouflages them from predators on the

land and in the sea. Penguins are shaped like

torpedoes, so when they walk, they wobble.

Penguins are about three to four feet high and

about two feet wide. Some are fatter than others,

just like people.

When a penguin egg is ready to hatch, the

father, not the mother, keeps it warm in a

special pouch on his feet while the mom goes

away to eat as much as she wants. The father

doesn’t get to eat at all until the mom comes back

right before the egg hatches. Poor dad. He must

get hungry waiting for the penguin chick to be born.

Penguins have busy social lives. They hang

out all day together talking in their special penguin

language and flapping their flippers. When

penguin colonies gather, it can be as loud as a

rock concert. It’s too bad you can’t have a penguin

for a pet, but who wants to live in the freezer?

Low: Penguins

Penguins are black and white

and that keeps them from being

seen by predators on the land

and sea. They are shaped like a

cone. Some penguins are fat and

some are skinny.

Penguin fathers help hatch the

eggs by keeping them warm on their

feet. The mothers don’t do as much as the

fathers to get ready for the penguin to be

born.

Penguins live in groups called colonies

and they make a lot of noise when they

are together. People don’t have penguins

as pets because they have to live in cold

places like Antarctica. Zoos are places

you can find penguins.l

slide44
Trait 4: Word ChoicePrompt: Using descriptive language, try to get your reader to visualize night in the forest.

High: Night in the Forest

The moon shimmers over the forest as

silvery streaks of light shine through the

towering pines. Chipmunks and mice scamper

to their homes on the forest floor. In the distance,

the owls cry out, “Whooo-whoo,” and the brook

gurgles noisily over the rocks. A foggy mist

blankets the woods, while the wind blows gently

through the trees. In the darkness, wildflowers

fold in their petals, and twigs on the ground

crackle as a deer walks to the brook for a drink.

Then the deer goes back to its home in the

heart of the forest. Morning is coming.

Low: Night in the Forest

The moon can be seen

through the tall trees. Small

animals go back to their homes.

You can hear owls and the water

in the background. It’s foggy and

the wind makes noise, so it’s hard

to see and hear. The flowers are

closed for the night. The deer get

a drink before they go back to their

forest homes. Morning is coming.

trait 5 sentence fluency prompt persuade your reader that the school day should end at 5 00
Trait 5: Sentence FluencyPrompt: Persuade your reader that the school day should end at 5:00.

High: 5:00 School Days

Think of how much more your could learn if

school was longer. What if school didn’t get out

until 5:00? The teachers would have extra time

to teach important classes like math and we’d

have more time to read our favorite books. Kids

would have more recess and lunch time, too. I’d

have more chances to be Fire Chief and Safety

Patrol leader. In a longer school day, you could

watch three movies and have time left over for

riddles and jokes. Fun! P.E. and band classes

could be twice as long and that would be good for

both subjects. I think a 5:00 school day is an

excellent idea for both teachers and students.

Low: 5:00 School Days

I think school days should

last until 5:00 so we can learn

more. Then the teachers could

teach us more. Then we would be

able to have a longer math period.

Then we’d be able to have a longer

recess time. Then we would be

able to have a longer lunch time. I’d

be able to be a Fire Chief and Safety

Patrol leader longer. We will get to

see three movies a day. Then we’d

be able to do more book reports in

two days. We’d be able to do P.E.

longer. Then we’d be able to have

band twice as long. We be able to

do more riddles and jokes in class.

That’s why I want school to last

until 5:00.

slide46

Trait 6: Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation, CapitalizationPrompt: Some people are frustrated by rainy days. Help your reader make thebest of rainy days.

Low: A Rainy Day

A Rainy Day is fun when you think of

gaimes to play. I play Freaze Tag and I

play hide in sink. Whitch my sister. I play

Freeze Tag wtth my family to its fun to

play Freaze Tag. Whenit’s a drzly dark

rainy Day. It Do not have to be boring.

It can be injoyable. You can play Games

and if you have a sister or brother you

can play hide in sink all Over the hous.

Game like Freaze Tag and hide in sink.

Is gaimes that you can play Iniside on

a rainy Day. some peple think rainy days

are boring. but not me. I love to play

gaimes on rainy days they make the day

Flie bye.

High: A Rainy Day

A rainy day is fun when you think of indoor

games to play. I play Hide and Seek all over the

house with my sister. I also play Freeze Tag

with my family. It’s fun to play Freeze Tag when

it’s a drizzly, dark, rainy day.

A rainy day does not have to be boring. It

can be enjoyable. You can play board games if

you have a sister or brother. I like to play

Trouble and Scrabble. You can play charades and

sing songs, too. some people think rainy days

are boring. But not me. I love to play games on

rainy days. They make the day fly by.

strategies
Strategies

Think of reading as a process:

Before

During

After

strategies48
Strategies

Think of reading as a process:

Before:

Preview: Establish expectations

Meet new words

Extract main ideas

strategies49
Strategies
  • Think of reading as a process:
  • Before:
  • Activate Prior Knowledge:
  • Knowledge through facts
  • Knowledge through experience
  • Knowledge through imagination
strategies50
Strategies

Think of reading as a process:

Before:

Establish a purpose for reading:

What am I looking for?

about your word wall
About Your Word Wall

The best word walls are:

Dynamic

Useful

Organized for a purpose

Generated and created by students

Written with words on cards, for easy

change

Attractive