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Government of Gujarat Tribal Development Programmes. Tribal Development Department Government of Gujarat. Tribal Population in India. Called Scheduled Tribes & defined in Article 342 of Constitution of India Cover 8.2% of India’s population and 15% of geographical area

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government of gujarat tribal development programmes

Government of GujaratTribal Development Programmes

Tribal Development Department

Government of Gujarat

tribal population in india
Tribal Population in India
  • Called Scheduled Tribes & defined in Article 342 of Constitution of India
  • Cover 8.2% of India’s population and 15% of geographical area
  • 500 scheduled tribes, 29 in Gujarat (8.87% of country’s Scheduled Tribes)
  • 75 Primitive Tribes, 5 in Gujarat
features of scheduled tribes
Features of Scheduled Tribes
  • Defined by Lokur Committee
    • Show primitive traits
    • Have distinctive culture
    • Shyness of contact with public at large
    • Geographical isolation
    • Social & economic backwardness
features of primitive tribes
Features of Primitive Tribes
  • Pre-agrarian level of technology
  • Stagnant or declining population
  • Extremely low literacy
  • Subsistence level of economy
scheduled areas
Scheduled Areas
  • Governor of the State has special powers concerning-
    • Prohibition or restricted transfer of land of ST
    • Regulation on business of money lending
    • Selective application of state legislations
    • Submission of annual report on administration of the area
    • Constitution of Tribal Advisory Council
    • Application of Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act
administrative mechanism
Administrative Mechanism
  • Tribal Area Sub Plans
    • Specifically earmarked budget for Tribal areas in proportion to their population
    • Funds are non-divertible
    • Tribal Development Department entrusted with planning and budgetary powers for TASP funds
  • Result
    • Gujarat earmarks 14.8% of its budget for tribal areas
    • Adverse indicators have been arrested
    • Many innovative programmes launched
    • Good infrastructure development
administrative mechanism8
Administrative Mechanism
  • Integrated Tribal Development Projects
    • Specifically empowered officials (Project Administrators) appointed to ITDP areas
    • Project Administrators have
      • Specific powers over activities of other agencies
      • Some flexible funds for designing any needed intervention
      • Have monitoring & supervisory roles over other Departments
administrative mechanism9
Administrative Mechanism
  • Gujarat Pattern Funds
    • Funds allocated for decentralized planning
      • Sector-wise funds devolve to the district
      • District level Tribal Advisory Board develops & implements plans
      • No financial approvals required
      • Funds mainly meant to provide for missing links, economic development & infrastructure
      • 20% funds kept at state level for inter-district projects
administrative mechanism10
Administrative Mechanism
  • Gujarat Pattern Funds
    • Allocation in Last three Years
administrative mechanism11
Administrative Mechanism
  • Gujarat Pattern Funds
    • Sectoral Allocation ( 2007-08)
hurdles in development
Hurdles in Development

Tribal Need Assessment Study (Taleem, 2007)

expectations from government
Expectations from Government

Tribal Need Assessment Study (Taleem, 2007)

results
Results

Findings of Tribal Need Assessment Study (Taleem, 2007)

results15
Results

Findings of Tribal Need Assessment Study( By Taleem-2007)

concerns
Concerns
  • Positive attention without specific strategy
  • Government & NGO driven micro-enterprise promotion
    • Agriculture seen as means of subsistence
    • animal husbandry as part time income
    • Low value/ part-time enterprise promotion
  • Poverty gaps not getting reduced
    • 38% of Gujarat’s poor are ST
  • Vocal & visible sections getting majority of benefits- potential cause for social conflicts & extremism
  • Unable to focus on sectors which have better potential- low return on investments
manifestations of poverty
Manifestations of Poverty
  • Features of food intake
    • 70-80% income on food, esp. basic food staples
  • Gender discrimination
    • Women have low access to & control of land, credit, technology, education, health & skilled work
    • Female headed households: low access to assets & social services
    • Heavier work burden
  • Diverse sources of livelihood
    • To reduce risk
    • Income in slack seasons
  • Low access to credit
    • Assymetric information
    • High unit cost of institutional credit
manifestations of poverty19
Manifestations of Poverty
  • Poor & livestock assets
    • More control over small stock
    • Less capital but more labour intensive
    • Can thrive in harsher climate
  • Public services & poor
    • Very little health & education expenditure on poor
    • Weak service delivery
    • Low level of demand creation by poor
  • Constraints faced by poor
    • Concentration in remote & resource deficient regions
    • Poor transport infrastructure
    • Lack of electricity
    • Human capital deficiencies: ill health, under nutrition & illiteracy
    • Have lower able bodied adults than non-poor
ngo promoted enterprises
NGO Promoted Enterprises
  • Unstable survivors
    • Minimal entry barriers: low capital, low technology, low market contact
    • Start up enterprises
    • Loan sizes small
    • Work for limited duration
    • Credit for consumption smoothening
    • Low credit absorption capacity
    • Average credit under NABARD SHG linkage programme was Rs. 2602 (Gujarat) & Rs. 2050 (Gujarat Tribal Areas)
government promoted enterprises
Government Promoted Enterprises
  • Stable survivors
    • Low return on labour
    • Low profitability- low reinvestment
    • Lack of timely market information
    • Low value addition
    • High competition
    • Little job creation
    • High covariance risk
    • Average SGSY credit in Gujarat was Rs. 7468 (SHG) & Rs. 25,000 (individual)
sustainable enterprise development
Sustainable Enterprise Development
  • Growth Enterprises
    • Upper end of poverty scale
    • Have production & risk taking experience
    • Use labour intensive production techniques
    • Average per capita expenditure under IDDP will be Rs. 60,000
chief minister s 10 point programme
Chief Minister’s 10 Point Programme
  • Quality & sustainable Employment for 500 thousand tribal families
  • Emphasis on quality education & higher education
  • Accelerated economic development of tribal areas
  • Health for all
  • Housing for all
  • Safe drinking water to all
  • Irrigation opportunity
  • All weather roads
  • Universal availability of electricity
  • Urban development
focus of tpp
Focus of TPP
  • Features
    • Aimed to bridge the gap in next 5 years
    • Assured funds
    • Outcome monitoring through third parties
    • Strengthening of delivery mechanism
    • People’s participation
  • Doubling of Income
    • Dairy based mega projects launched
    • Horticulture & agricultural diversification projects
    • Involvement of private sector on outcome guarantee basis
    • Convergence with irrigation, electricity & agriculture related agencies
    • High quality skill training centers with private participation
    • Stress on LEITES, broad band connectivity
focus of tpp25
Focus of TPP
  • Social Infrastructure
    • Quality education to meritorious students
    • Delivery in private hospitals, specially equipped wards in major hospitals & attention on major diseases
    • Piped drinking water at household levels
    • Focus on primitive tribes, migrant families & women headed households
    • Quality houses for all
focus of tpp26
Focus of TPP
  • Civil infrastructure
    • State of art roads, electricity & broadband connectivity- also linked with major projects
    • Support for irrigation & modern farming techniques
    • Urban pockets to act as growth engines
best practices
Best Practices
  • Vadi : 5400 Acres, 87000 households in last 3 years
  • Dairy: 2.2 lakhs Litres, 25000 households
  • Water Harvesting :12000 Check Dams, 22,000 ha through lift irrigation, emphasis on drip irrigation
  • Jyoti Gram Yojana: All villages covered
  • Kanya Kelwani: Focus on low literacy tribal villages
  • Krishi Mahotsav: 85% Villages Coverage,2.5 lakh Soil Health Card & 20,000 Kisan Credit Cards issued
pilot projects
Pilot Projects
  • Doodh Sanjivani
    • 200 ml Sweet, Flavoured, Fortified Milk daily
    • 52000 School Children, 2 Talukas on pilot basis
  • WiMAX: Broad band Connectivity, 1st in Chhotaudepur
  • BioMatrix: To monitor attendance in 100 Ashramshalas
  • Pre-paid meters for migrating families
pilot projects30
Pilot Projects
  • LPG- 1,00,000 connections for tribal areas, priority to women headed HHs
  • Tribal Wards
    • Access of high quality health services, free of cost
    • Facilitation for procedures and diagnostic tests by a dedicated attendant
    • Augmented nursing staff
    • Clean environment
  • Sanitary Pad Units in rural areas- low cost, high quality sanitary pads to improve personal hygiene and reduce gynecological problems
pilot projects31
Pilot Projects
  • Eklavya Model Residential Schools
    • High quality, urban level public schools for meritorious children
    • Average expenditure- Rs. 25,000 per child/ year
    • Capital cost- Rs. 5 crore per school
    • 43 schools proposed, 8 already running
    • Management to be outsourced to reputed schools
    • Participation of industrial houses being sought
private sector s participation
Private Sector’s Participation
  • CM’s Ten Point Programme actively seeks private sector participation for-
    • Implementation of large, labour intensive projects in tribal areas
      • Grant @ Rs. 30,000 per family Plus credit
      • Provision of required infrastructure
      • Outcome guarantee
    • Setting up modern skill training schools
      • Full capital & recurring cost by Government
      • Full employability to be assured
    • Supporting EMRS
      • Support for capital/ recurring cost
      • Management of schools