Edward Titchner and Munsterberg. Very philosophical – not a truly separate science Most important “psychologists” was William James who saw himself as more a philosopher This changed when two of Wundt’s students came to the U. S. Edward Titchner Hugo Munsterberg. 1880 American psychology.
Most people have never heard of Munsterberg or know little about him
Titchner was British; Munsterberg was German
Titchner a more flashier person
The most read history of psychology promoted Titchner’s importance
Many of Munsterberg’s ideas and papers angered certain groups in societyHistory, Titchner, and Munsterberg
He brought his interpretation of Wundt’s psychology to the U.S.
He appeared to be a follower of Wundt and it was assumed their psychology was the same – it wasn’t
Founder of structuralismAmerican psychology and Titchner
Highly authoritarian - ruled his students education, research, and private lives
His program had a large drop out rate due to his absolute control and demand for absolute loyalty
But also because of his emphasis on independent learningAmerican psychology and Titchner
The subject of psychology is our experience and is dependent upon the experiencing personTitchner’s psychology - Structuralism
Exclude all possible topics that cannot be studied using introspection
Study of psychology according to Titchner was very rigid and narrowPsychological method of study
Sensations – humans could experience thousands of different sensations (32,820 visual sensations.
Images – psychologically the same as sensations
Feelings – emotional reactions that accompany certain mental experiencesBasis of Structuralism
Titchner – rejected this idea because his system of introspection didn’t give description of attention
Attention does bring sensations or ideas to the foreground and dims others, but it is not a part of consciousnessExample – What is attention?
Problems with introspection – reporting changes in consciousness while changes are occurring interferes with consciousness
He tried to answer this issue through replicationProblems with Titchner’s structuralism
While he graduated many students, most abandoned introspection after recognizing problems with it
Wundt had the all the power to accept or reject dissertations
Titchner no problem because it was in line with Wundt’s positions
Munsterberg had his 1st rejected – didn’t agree with WundtTitchner and Munsterberg
Munsterberg much more flexible and personable
Interested in mental health, forensic psychology, and industrial psychology
Did not see himself as a clinical psychologistMunsterberg as the antithesis of Titchner
directly challenged the ideas of Freud
Opposed a general approach to mental illness
On the Witness Stand (1908) – application of psychology to the courts
Problems with eye witness testimony and questioning techniques
Women should be excluded from juries because they are incapable of rational discussion
Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913)Contributions
Reported that women were incapable of rational discussion when the women’s suffrage movement was gaining strength.
Trashed the legal system and their handling of witnesses
He became very unpopular for not being “politically correct”Munsterberg’s decline in importance