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Small Animal Damage Control Hank Uhden WY Dept. Of Agriculture Small Animal Damage Control INTRODUCTION Manual & Handouts Purpose of Training Training Outline: Commonly Used Products Commonly Controlled Animals Need for Control or Disease Vectors Bird Control

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small animal damage control
Small Animal Damage Control

Hank Uhden

WY Dept. Of Agriculture

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Small Animal Damage Control

INTRODUCTION

  • Manual & Handouts
  • Purpose of Training
  • Training Outline:
      • Commonly Used Products
      • Commonly Controlled Animals
          • Need for Control or Disease Vectors
      • Bird Control
      • Diseases of Major Health Concern
          • Plague, Rabies, Hantavirus
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Small Animal Damage Control

Objective of Control Program

  • Reduce and/or Eliminate Economic Loss
    • Access the Damage
    • Positive Pest Identification

Who ?... Me !?!

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Small Animal Damage Control

Correct Control Solution

  • Preventive or Protective Control
  • Habitat Alteration
  • Removal of Food Supply
  • Exclusion
  • Aversion Techniques
  • Repellents
  • Pyrotechnics
  • Scare Devices
  • Trapping, Lethal & Non-lethal
  • Epizootics
  • Toxicants
  • Shooting
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Small Animal Damage Control

Toxicology

  • Bait
    • Food item w/ toxicant
  • Lethal Dose (LD)
    • LD LD
    • Milligrams of toxicant / kilogram of body weight
    • Lower LD s are more toxic

50

100

50

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Small Animal Damage Control

Toxicology

  • Grains Commonly Used:
    • Barley, Wheat, Oats
  • Grains:
    • Whole
    • Mechanically Altered
      • Dependent upon 1) Pest to be controlled; 2) Site of Application; 3) Protection of non-targets
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Small Animal Damage Control

Safety Precautions

  • Label Equipment
    • Poison
    • Skull & Crossbones
  • Wear Respirator
    • Never carry toxicants in passenger compartment
  • Prohibit:
    • Smoking, eating, or other hand to mouth contact
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Small Animal Damage Control

Rodent Control

  • Rodenticides

Rodenticides are substances or a mixture of substances intended for destroying, repelling, or mitigating rodents.

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Small Animal Damage Control

Rodent Control

  • Rodenticides
  • Color Additives:
  • Protect seed eating birds
  • Aid in bait identification
  • Aid in bait preparation
  • Prevent accidental human consumption
  • Prevent diversion for use as livestock feed
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Small Animal Damage Control

Specific Products Commonly Used

Strychnine

Zinc Phosphide

Anticoagulants

Aluminum Phosphide

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Small Animal Damage Control

Strychnine

ALL ABOVEGROUNDUSES HAVE BEEN CANCELLED

  • Uses limited to below ground - pocket gophers only
  • Acute, single dose toxicant
  • White, bitter tasting powder - Made from seeds of the Asian strychnos nux vomica tree
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Small Animal Damage Control

Strychnine

  • Available only in an alkaloid form
    • Almost insoluble in water
    • Will breakdown if exposed to heat & light
  • Other characteristics
    • Is not cumulative
    • Has a slight odor
    • Is not selective
  • Toxic to most animals
  • Rapidly absorbed - effects rapid
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Small Animal Damage Control

Zinc Phosphide

PRE-BAITING IS NECESSARY!

  • Use restricted to July - December
  • Prozap™ (HAACO) allows use in WY March 1 - June 30 (SLN - 24c)
  • Labeled for: meadow mice, voles, ground squirrels, prairie dogs, various species of rats and other rodents.
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Small Animal Damage Control

Zinc Phosphide

  • Characteristics:
    • Heavy, finely ground gray-black powder
    • Strong, pungent, garlic like odor
    • Insoluble in water & alcohol
    • Reacts with acids readily
    • Less toxic than strychnine
    • Slowest acting of the commonly used rodenticides
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Small Animal Damage Control

Anticoagulants

  • Characteristics:
    • Reduce clotting ability of blood
    • Death occurs from internal & external bleeding
    • Affected animals die quietly
    • Poison of choice in and near cities
    • Little danger to domestic animals
    • Available as dry bait, or water soluble
    • Vitamin K is the antidote
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Small Animal Damage Control

Aluminum Phosphide

  • Characteristics:
    • Registered for control of various burrowing rodents (e.g. Prairie dogs)
    • Tablet form
    • Moisture produces phosphine gas
    • Labeled for outdoor use only
      • Rangeland & pastures
      • Non-cropland areas
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Small Animal Damage Control

Gas Cartridges

  • Produces carbon monoxide
  • Unrestricted use product - easy to use
  • Precautions:
    • Do not use near buildings or flammable materials
    • Carbon Monoxide is odorless, colorless
  • Labeled uses:
    • Small Gas Cartridge: burrowing rodents
    • Large Gas Cartridge: coyotes, skunks
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Small Animal Damage Control

Vertebrate Pests Commonly Controlled

Prairie Dogs

Porcupines

Pocket Gophers

Moles

Ground Squirrels

Skunks

Bats

Birds

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Small Animal Damage Control

Prairie Dogs

  • Baiting
    • Zinc Phosphide requires pre-baiting
  • Best when green forage is not available
  • Use one (1) teaspoon of bait/burrow
  • Fumigants
    • Clean-up following bait applications
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Small Animal Damage Control

Prairie Dogs

  • Precautions
    • Always wear gloves
    • When working with toxicants
    • When handling carcasses - host to plague infected fleas
  • Black-Footed Ferret Searches
    • Dependent upon size of treatment area, species of prairie dog
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Small Animal Damage Control

Pocket Gopher

  • General Information:
    • Extensive underground burrow system
  • Eat plant roots & stems. Girdle trees or clip tree roots
  • Mounds are horseshoe shaped
  • Active in winter
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Small Animal Damage Control

Pocket Gopher

  • Control:
    • Most Effective: Toxicants and traps
  • 0.5% Strychnine Oats
  • Large or heavily infested areas - use burrow builder
  • Hand baiting, fumigation, or trapping for small areas
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Small Animal Damage Control

Ground Squirrels

  • General:
    • More destructive than prairie dogs - larger numbers & range
  • Estivation - tend to live in one place
  • Active year around
  • Host to plague infected fleas
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Small Animal Damage Control

Ground Squirrels

  • Control:
    • Fumigants
      • Gas Cartridges
  • Trapping
  • Toxicants
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Small Animal Damage Control

Porcupines

  • Classified as a rodent
  • Primarily inhabit forested areas
    • Do not hibernate, rest in same place
  • Damage:Girdle pine trees, eat fruits, alfalfa, sweet corn
  • Control:Trapping and/or shooting
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Small Animal Damage Control

Moles

  • Classified as a rodent
  • Pest of gardens, lawns, flower beds
  • Rarely surface above ground
  • Most damage caused when digging
    • Voles, white-footed mice, house mice, other animals utilize tunnels, cause damage often blamed on moles
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Small Animal Damage Control

Moles

  • Control:
    • Exclusion
  • Cultural: Re-packing soil, reduce soil moisture
  • Repellents: Onions/garlic around gardens
  • Toxicants: Will not take bait readily
  • Fumigants
  • Trapping: Only effective method
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Small Animal Damage Control

Skunks

  • Member of the weasel family
  • Classified as a predator
  • Plant & animal foods - insects preferred
    • Will eat small mammals
    • Classified insectivorous
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Small Animal Damage Control

Skunks

  • Health risk:
    • Rabies
  • Habitat:
    • Clearings, pastures, prairies
    • Usually a den - hollow logs, under buildings
    • Dormant during extreme cold
    • Most reports come in early spring and fall
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Small Animal Damage Control

Skunks

  • Control
    • Preventive control foremost - Seal Openings
  • Trapping - Lethal & live traps
  • Shooting
  • Large gas cartridge
  • Toxicants - NONE
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Small Animal Damage Control

Bats

Most bats are protected under the Migratory Bird Act

Here’s your problem - a bunch of bats in your chimney!

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Small Animal Damage Control

Bats

  • Insectivorous
  • Not aggressive, but will bite if handled
  • Health risk: rabies & encephalitis
  • Control:
  • Exclusion (permanent solution)
  • Ultrasonic devices - not effective, some attract bats
  • Naphthalene Flakes (Moth balls)
  • Toxicants - NONE
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Small Animal Damage Control

Bird Control

  • Migratory birds - 50 CFR 21
  • Game & Fish Chapter LII Non-game Regulations
  • Statutes define:
    • “Predacious bird” means English sparrow and starling
      • May be taken any time during the calendar year in Wyoming
      • Legal to destroy nest & eggs
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Small Animal Damage Control

Bird Control

  • Statutes Define:
    • “Protected bird” means migratory birds as defined and

protected under federal law

  • Diseases:
    • Histoplasmosis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Cholera
    • Parrot Fever
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Small Animal Damage Control

Bird Control

  • Urban sanitation problems - pigeons, sparrows, starlings, and increasingly geese
  • Control:
    • Habitat manipulation
    • Aversion
    • Exclusion
    • Trapping & baiting
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Small Animal Damage Control

Bird Control

  • Control - continued:
    • Toxicants (Avicides) & lethal methods - legality?
  • Chemosterilants
  • Nest destruction
  • Poison baits
    • Carcasses picked up
    • Eagles most at risk
  • Contact poisons
    • Toxic perches
  • Surfactant or detergent solutions
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Small Animal Damage Control

Bird Control

Methods most effective when used intermittently, in combination with other techniques AND before birds establish regular feeding habits

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Small Animal Damage Control

- Diseases -

Highest Exposure Risk

Plague

Rabies

Hantavirus

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Small Animal Damage Control

Plague

  • Bacteria Yersinia Pestis
    • First discovered in Yellowstone Nat. Park - 1934
  • Predominant in prairie dog populations
    • Causes sudden, unexplained die-offs
  • Not prevalent in big game populations
    • Does exist in feline, canine, squirrel, rabbit, chipmunk and other commensal rodent populations
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Small Animal Damage Control

Plague

  • Human contact plague in 3 ways:
    • Flea bite
    • Unprotected contact
    • Airborne particles
  • Flea associated with human plague does not exist in Wyoming
    • Rodent flea though will feed on humans if the opportunity arises
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Small Animal Damage Control

Plague

  • Last 80 years, all cases of respiratory (pneumonic) plague have been contracted from house cats
  • Chances of contracting plague are small
    • Treatable if caught in time
    • Symptoms similar to flu
    • Wear impervious gloves (rubber latex) when skinning wild animals
    • Most at risk are hunters & trappers
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Small Animal Damage Control

Plague

  • Three types of plague:
    • Bubonic - Flea bite
    • Septicemic - Fluids from infected animal
    • Pneumonic - Secondary/Respiratory droplets
  • Control of plague vector
    • Sevin Dust
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Small Animal Damage Control

Rabies

  • People at high risk can be vaccinated
  • Any animal is capable of contracting, carrying, and transmitting
  • Rabies can be latent
  • Occurs most often in spring and fall
  • Virus remains active even if frozen
  • Death is not always probable
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Small Animal Damage Control

Rabies

  • Animals with rabies or suspected cases:
    • Cage the animal, notify public health officer
  • A rabid dog may:
    • Bite other animals or moving objects
    • Seizures, muscle incoordination
    • Die by progressive paralysis
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Small Animal Damage Control

Rabies

  • Bats with rabies may be controlled with tracking powders
  • Skunks - for testing
    • Shoot in body, ship head to State Vet Lab
  • Rabies can be contracted through open wounds or breaks in the skin
    • Wear impervious gloves when skinning wild animals
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Small Animal Damage Control

Hantavirus

  • Deer mouse is primary carrier
  • Transmitted by:
    • Direct contact with mice
    • Inhaling airborne particles
  • No known person to person transmission
  • Infection in cats is rare
  • Similar virus to hemorrhagic fever - no known cure
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Small Animal Damage Control

Hantavirus

  • Causes flu-like symptoms
  • Safety Precautions:
  • Controlling rodents, cleaning areas:
    • Wet mop
    • Wear rubber or latex gloves
    • Wear a HEPA filter - Not paper
    • Eliminate compatible environment
    • Disinfection and cleaning bleach
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Small Animal Damage Control

Summary

  • More rodent & predator information:

Dept. Of Agriculture:

http://wyagric.state.wy.us/techserv/tsindex.html

Control Information:

http://wildlifedamage.unl.edu/

QUESTIONS ?