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Design for Cast and Molded Parts. Team: Terese Bertcher Larry Brod Pam Lee Mike Wehr. Design for Cast and Molded Parts. Revision Team: Seamus Clark Scott Leonardi Gary Meyers. Lecture Topics. Basic Casting Design Guidelines Injection Molding Process Gating Considerations

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design for cast and molded parts

Design for Cast and Molded Parts

Team: Terese Bertcher

Larry Brod

Pam Lee

Mike Wehr

design for cast and molded parts2

Design for Cast and Molded Parts

Revision Team: Seamus Clark

Scott Leonardi

Gary Meyers

lecture topics
Lecture Topics
  • Basic Casting Design Guidelines
  • Injection Molding Process
  • Gating Considerations
  • Case Study – Corvette Brake Pedal
  • Case Study – M1 Abrams Tank
lecture topics4
Lecture Topics
  • Basic Casting Design Guidelines
  • Injection Molding Process
  • Gating Considerations
  • Case Study – Corvette Brake Pedal
  • Case Study – M1 Abrams Tank
basic casting design guidelines
Basic Casting Design Guidelines
  • Visualize the Casting
  • Design for Soundness
  • Avoid Sharp Angles & Corners
  • Minimize the Number of Sections
  • Employ Uniform Sections
  • Correctly Proportion Inner Walls
  • Fillet All Sharp Angles
  • Avoid Abrupt Section Changes
  • Maximize Design of Ribs & Brackets
  • Avoid Using Bosses, Lugs & Pads
visualize the casting
Visualize the Casting
  • It is difficult to follow section changes and shapes from blueprint.
  • Create a model to scale or full size to help designer to:
    • See how cores must be designed, placed or omitted
    • Determine how to mold the casting
    • Detect casting weaknesses (shrinks / cracks)
    • Determine where to place gates and risers
    • Answer questions affecting soundness, cost and delivery
design for soundness
Design for Soundness
  • Most metals and alloys shrink when they solidify
  • Design components so that all parts increase in dimension progressively to areas where feeder heads (risers) can be placed to offset shrinkage.
  • Disguise areas of shrinkage when unavoidable
avoid sharp angles corners
Avoid Sharp Angles & Corners
  • When two or more sections conjoin, mechanical weakness is induced at the junction and free cooling is interrupted – most common defect in casting design.
    • Replace sharp angles with radii and minimize heat and stress concentration
    • In cored parts avoid designs without cooling surfaces
    • A rounded junction offers uniform strength properties
design rules corners radii

Incorrect Corner Design

Good Corner Design

  • Generous radius
  • Uniform wall thickness
  • Smooth flow transition
  • Very sharp radii
  • High stress concentration
  • Sharp flow transition

Incorrect Corner Design

Incorrect Corner Design

  • Outside corner and inside radius
  • Non-uniform wall thickness
  • Non-uniform flow transition
  • Shrinkage stress / voids / sinks
  • Inside / outside radius mismatch
  • Non-uniform wall thickness
  • Non-uniform flow transition

Sink

Design Rules:Corners & Radii
minimize the number of sections
Minimize the Number of Sections
  • A well designed casting brings the minimum number of sections together at one point.
  • Staggering sections (where possible)
    • Minimizes hot spot effects
    • Eliminates weakness
    • Reduces distortion
  • Where staggering sections is not possible use a cored hole through the center of the junction.
    • Helps to speed solidification
    • Helps to avoid hot spots
employ uniform sections
Employ Uniform Sections
  • Thicker walls will solidify more slowly.
    • This means they will feed solidifying inner walls.
    • Results in shrinkage voids in the thicker walls
  • Goal is to design uniform sections that solidify evenly.
    • If this is not possible, all heavy sections should be accessible to feeding from risers.
design rules wall uniformity

Improved Part Design

  • Thinner wall sections
  • More uniform wall thickness
  • Inside and outside radii (when possible)
  • Original Part Design
  • Very thick wall sections
  • Non-uniform wall thickness
  • Sharp inside and outside radii
Design Rules: Wall Uniformity
correctly proportion inner walls
Correctly Proportion Inner Walls
  • Inner sections of castings cool much slower than outer sections.
    • Causes variations in strength properties
  • A good rule of thumb is to reduce inner sections to 90% of outer wall thickness.
  • Avoid rapid section changes
    • Results in porosity problems similar to what is seen with sharp angles.
design rules wall uniformity19

Part gated from “thin to thick” hinders packing of thicker sections and can create flow problems.

Internal runner to assist / improve the ability to pack the thick section when gating from “thin to thick” is necessary.

Gating from “thick to thin” when possible to improve flow and allow thicker sections to be packed.

Design Rules: Wall Uniformity
correctly proportion inner walls20
Correctly Proportion Inner Walls
  • Whenever complex cores must be used, design for uniformity of section to avoid local heavy masses of metal.
  • The inside diameter of cylinders and bushings should exceed the wall thickness of castings.
    • When the I.D. is less than the wall it is better to cast the section as a solid.
    • Holes can be produced by cheaper and safer methods than with extremely thin cores
fillet all sharp angles
Fillet All Sharp Angles
  • Fillets (rounded corners) have three functional purposes:
    • To reduce the stress concentration in a casting in service
    • To eliminate cracks, tears and draws at re-entry angles
    • To make corners more moldable by eliminating hot spots
  • The number of fillet radii in one pattern should be the minimum possible.
fillet all sharp angles22
Fillet All Sharp Angles
  • Large fillets may be used with radii equaling or exceeding the casting section.
    • Commonly used to fulfill engineering stress requirements
    • Reduces stress concentration
  • Note: Fillets that are too large are undesirable – the radius of the fillet should not exceed half the thickness of the section joined.
fillet all sharp angles23
Fillet All Sharp Angles
  • Tips to avoid a section size that is too large at an “L”, “V” or “Y” junction.
  • For an “L” junction :
    • Round an outside corner to match the fillet on the inside wall. (If this is not possible the designer must make a decision as to which is more important: Engineering design or possible casting defect)
  • For a “V” or “Y” junction:
    • Always design so that a generous radius eliminates localization of heat.
avoid abrupt section changes
Avoid Abrupt Section Changes
  • The difference in relative thickness of adjoining sections should not exceed a ratio of 2:1.
  • With a ratio less than 2:1 the change in thickness may take on the form of a fillet.
  • Where this is not possible consider a design with detachable parts.
avoid abrupt section changes26
Avoid Abrupt Section Changes
  • With a ratio greater than 2:1 the recommended shift for the change in thickness should take on the form of a wedge.
    • Note: wedge-shaped changes in wall thickness should not taper more than 1 in 4.
  • Where a combination of light and heavy sections is unavoidable, use fillets and tapered sections to temper the shifts.
design rules section changes

Tapered Transition

Better

Wall Thickness Transitions

Gradual Transition

Stepped Transition

Poor Design

Best

Core out thicker areas where possible

Design Rules: Section Changes
maximize design of ribs brackets
Maximize Design of Ribs & Brackets
  • Ribs are only preferable when the casting wall cannot be made strong or stiff enough on its own.
  • Ribs have two functions:
    • They increase stiffness
    • They help to reduce weight
  • Common mistakes that make ribs ineffective:
    • Too shallow
    • Too widely spaced
maximize design of ribs brackets29
Maximize Design of Ribs & Brackets
  • The thickness of the ribs should be approximately 80% of the adjoining thickness and should be rounded at the edge.
  • The design preference is for ribs to be deeper than they are thick.
  • Ribs should solidify before the casting section they adjoin.
  • The space between ribs should be designed such that localized accumulation of metal is prevented.
design rules rib dimensions

General Guidelines for Rib Dimensions*

  • Component wall thickness: h
  • Draft per side(0): 0.5º  1.5º
  • Rib height (L):  5h (typically 2.53.0h)
  • Rib spacing (on center):  2h  3h
  • Base radius (R):  0.25h  0.40h
  • Rib thickness (t): 0.4  0.8h
  • *Exact rib dimensions are material specific
Design Rules:Rib Dimensions
design rules rib wall thickness

Shrinkage Voids

Excessive Radius

Rib

Sink Mark

Radius (fillet)

Part Wall

Excessive Rib Wall Thickness

Correct Proportions

Design Rules:Rib Wall Thickness
maximize design of ribs brackets32
Maximize Design of Ribs & Brackets
  • Generally, ribs in compression offer a greater safety factor than ribs in tension.
  • Exception: Castings with thin ribs in compression may require design changes to provide necessary stiffening and avoid buckling.
  • Thin ribs should be avoided when joined to a heavy section or they may lead to high stresses and cracking
maximize design of ribs brackets33
Maximize Design of Ribs & Brackets
  • Avoid cross ribs or ribbing on both sides of a casting.
    • Cross ribbing creates hot spots and makes feeding difficult
    • Alternative is to design cross-coupled ribs in a staggered “T” form.
  • Avoid complex ribbing
    • Complicates molding, hinders uniform solidification and creates hot spots.
maximize design of ribs brackets34
Maximize Design of Ribs & Brackets
  • Ribs meeting at acute angles may cause molding difficulties, increase costs and aggravate the risk of casting defects.
  • “Honeycombing” often will provide increased strength and stiffness without creating hot spots.
maximize design of ribs brackets37
Maximize Design of Ribs & Brackets
  • Brackets carrying offset loads introduce bending moments-localized and in the body of the casting.
  • Tips to avoid this problem:
    • Taper “L” shaped brackets and make the length of contact with the main casting as ample as possible.
    • Brackets may frequently be cast separately and then attached, simplifying the molding.
maximize design of ribs brackets38
Maximize Design of Ribs & Brackets
  • A ribbed bracket will offer a stiffness advantage, but avoid heat concentration by providing cored openings in webs and ribs.
    • The openings should be as large as possible
    • The openings should be consistent with strength and stiffness
  • Avoid rectangular-shaped cored holes in ribs or webs.
    • Use oval-shaped holes with the longest dimension in the direction of the stresses
recommended configurations

Sharp corners, small radii

H  T

H > T core out underside

Ribs inside, good distribution of metals for all purposes.

May complicate die construction

May complicate die construction

Good distribution of stresses

External ribs may cause poor distribution of stresses

Generous draft and fillets, angular transitions

Sharp corners, small radii, little draft

Recommended Configurations
avoid using bosses lugs pads
Avoid Using Bosses, Lugs & Pads
  • Bosses and pads can have adverse effects on castings:
    • They increase metal thickness
    • They create hot spots
    • They can cause open grain or draws
  • If they must be incorporated into a design you should blend them into the casting by tapering or flattening the fillets.
avoid using bosses lugs pads44
Avoid Using Bosses, Lugs & Pads
  • The thickness of bosses and pads should be less than the thickness of the casting section they adjoin but thick enough to permit machining without touching the casting wall.
  • Exception: Where a casting section is light the following should be used as a guide:
avoid using bosses lugs pads45
Avoid Using Bosses, Lugs & Pads
  • Bosses should not be used in casting design when the surface to support bolts may be obtained by milling or countersinking.
  • A continuous rib instead of a series of bosses will permit shifting hole location.
  • Where there are several lugs and bosses on one surface, they should be joined to facilitate machining.
    • A panel of uniform thickness will simplify machining
    • Make the walls of a boss at uniform thickness to the casting walls
design rules boss design

Poor Boss Designs: result in the potential for sink marks and voids.

Sinks / Voids / Cooling stresses

Improved Boss Designs

Gussets reinforce free standing bosses

Thick sections cored out

Bosses attached to the walls using ribs

Design Rules: Boss Design
lecture topics48
Lecture Topics
  • Basic Casting Design Guidelines
  • Injection Molding Process
  • Gating Considerations
  • Case Study – Corvette Brake Pedal
  • Case Study – M1 Abrams Tank
injection molding process
Injection Molding Process
  • The injection molding process is a high speed, automated process that can be used to produce plastic parts with very complex geometries.
  • A typical die casting machine is shown in the next slide. Due to the combined effects of flow through both the machine and the mold, large pressure drops associated with mold filling can occur.
injection molding process52
Injection Molding Process

Conventional Injection Molding

Sink

Gas Assisted Injection Molding

Gas Assisted Injection Molding

Gas Channels

lecture topics58
Lecture Topics
  • Basic Casting Design Guidelines
  • Injection Molding Process
  • Gating Considerations
  • Case Study – Corvette Brake Pedal
  • Case Study – M1 Abrams Tank
gating considerations

Spruce

Cavity

Part

Core

Gate

Runner

Spruce Puller (and cold slug well)

Gating Considerations
gating considerations61

Primary spruce

Parting Line 2

Spruce Gate

Secondary Spruce

Pin Gate

Parting Line 1

Two plate single cavity mold

Single parting line

Three plate mold configuration (multi cavity)

Gating Considerations
gating considerations62

Alternatives to Reverse Injection

Standard Configuration

Cavity (stationary half)

Core (moving half)

Logo..placed

At gate location

Reverse Injection

Cavity (stationary half)

Core (moving half)

Tunnel gating through knockout pin

Gating Considerations
gating considerations63

Single top center gate

Cold edge gate fed by hot manifold

Multiple top gating of single cavity

Cold edge gating of several cavities fed by hit manifold

Center gating of several cavities

Direct lateral gating of several cavities

Hot manifold for a stack mold

Gating Considerations
gating considerations64

Fill is complete

Weld

  • Two Gates
  • Improved filling pattern and pressure distribution
  • Formation of one weld line

Sections remain unfilled

  • Three Gates
  • Filling pattern and pressure distribution are better
  • Formation of two weld lines
Gating Considerations
gating considerations65

Filling pattern without flow leaders (uniform wall thickness)

Spruce gated box shaped molding

Uniform wall thickness

Max Flow length (highest P)

Corners: last to fill

Sides fill early 

Overpacking and changes flow direction

Flow leaders / internal runnersLocal increases in wall thickness promote flow, uniform pressure drop extend from gate to corners of part

Improved filling pattern with flow leaders (non-uniform wall thickness)

  • Three gates and flow leaders
  • Most uniform filling pattern and pressure distribution
  • Requires wall thickness variation or diagonal ribs
Gating Considerations
lecture topics66
Lecture Topics
  • Basic Casting Design Guidelines
  • Injection Molding Process
  • Gating Considerations
  • Case Study – Corvette Brake Pedal
  • Case Study – M1 Abrams Tank
a design study in aluminum casting

A Design Study in Aluminum Casting

The Brake Pedal for the Chevrolet Corvette

Casting\Corvette Case Study.pdf

lecture topics68
Lecture Topics
  • Basic Casting Design Guidelines
  • Injection Molding Process
  • Gating Considerations
  • Case Study – Corvette Brake Pedal
  • Case Study – M1 Abrams Tank
a design study in steel casting

A Design Study in Steel Casting

The Ice Cleat for the M1 Abrams Tank

Casting\ice_cleat M1 Abrams.pdf

references
References
  • The case studies were obtained from the Engineered Casting Solutions website.
    • URL: http://www.castsolutions.com/
  • Modern Casting, May 2001 v91 i5 p50., “Basics of Gray Iron Casting Design: 10 Rules for Engineered Quality”