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Clock-Driven Approach

- With periodic tasks, it is possible to statically determine a schedule:
- cyclic schedule implemented by a cyclic executive.
- The cyclic schedule is a table listing jobs and their start times (aka decision time). Each job scheduled as a unit and is non-preemptable.
- Job may be function call, block of instructions, portion of procedure.
- Cyclic schedule (Table) defines a block of repeatable scheduling decisions where all deadlines and periods are met - Major Cycle.
- Timing decisions made only at frame boundaries.

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

(Cyclic Schedule)

t1

...

tn

T(t1)

...

T(tn)

Example Timer-Driven Scheduleint MajorCycle = 10;

int entry = -1;

clock_handler () {

time_t next_time;

current = Table[entry].task;

entry = (entry+1) % MajorCycle;

next_time= Table[entry].time

+ gettime();

execute_task(current);

if (gettime() > next_time)

handle_overload();

return;

}

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Creating a Model

- Major cycle can be divided into a sequence of fixed sized minor cycles (aka frames).
- Scheduling decisions are only made at frame boundaries.
- Exact start and completion time of jobs within frame is not known
- but must know the max computation time
- Jobs are allocated to specific frames
- Major cycle time corresponds to a Hyperperiod.
- If a schedule can not be found for the set of predefined jobs then they may need to be divided into job slices.
- divide job into a sequence of smaller jobs

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Model Description

- Periodic task model:
- N periodic tasks, where N is fixed
- Parameters of all periodic tasks known a priori
- assume interrelease time jitter negligible
- Ji,k (job k of task i) ready at its release timeri,k

Major Cycle

Minor Cycle (frame)

...

T1

T3

T2

T1

T4

T1

T3

T2

fn

f2

f1

Cyclic Executive runs in response to a tick event, bar shows time to execute scheduler

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

frame 4

frame 5

frame 2

Constructing a ScheduleCyclic Schedule

- Construct static schedule for a Major Cycle
- Cyclic Executive repeats this schedule segment
- There may be resulting idle intervals
- if so attempt to arrange so they occur periodically
- Static table lists frame fkand tasks to run tasksk (scheduling block),

f1

tasks1

...

...

f5

tasks5

Task = ( r, e)

T1 = ( 4, 1)

T2 = ( 5, 1.8)

T3 = (20, 1)

T4 = (20, 2)

H = 20

Major Cycle (Hyperperiod)

frame 1

T1

T3

T2

T1

T4

T2

T1

T2

T1

T1

T2

t = 0

4

8

12

16

20

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Example Cyclic Executive

int MajorCycle = 10;

int MinorCycle = 1;

int frame=-1;

// tick handler,

// called at start of frame

ce_handler() {

time_t next_time = 0;

// ensure previous frame completed

if (previous execute_scheduler running)

handle_overrun(); // error

// determine frame and schedule

frame = (frame + 1) % MajorCycle;

next_time = gettime() + MinorCycle;

schedule = CyclicTable[frame].sched;

// sequentially run each job in schedule

execute_schedule(schedule);

// done with this frame

return;

}

execute_schedule (schedule) {

job_t job;

for each job in schedule

execute job

return

}

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Partitioning Major Cycles into Frames

- Three tasks:
- choosing frame size,
- partitioning jobs into slices (if needed),
- placing jobs/slices into frames.
- Frames boundaries (start of frame) cyclic executive performs scheduling, monitoring and enforcement
- There is no preemption within frame
- Phase of every task instance is multiple of frame (j·f)
- first job of task starts on frame boundary, T = j·f.

T1

T3

T2

T1

T4

T2

T1

T2

T1

T1

T2

Hyperperiod, Major Cycle

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Frame Size Constraints

- Every job can start and complete within a frame
- f ≥ max(ei), 1≤i≤ n
- Frame size divides H (the Hyperperiod)
- f divides pi for at least one value of i
- for a, x and k positive integers:ai·pi = H and x·f = pi k · f = H
- Between the release time and deadline of every job there is at least one frame
- t’ = release time of a job Jij; Dij = relative deadline of job Jij
- Want t + 2f ≤ t’ + Di or 2f - (t' - t) ≤ Di,
- but t' - t ≥ gcd(pi, f)
- if 2f - gcd(pi, f) ≤ Dithen 2f - (t' - t) ≤ Dimust be true.
- If t’ = t then it suffices if f ≤ Di.

fk+1

fk

fk+2

Jij feasible interval

t

t'

t+f

t+2f

t+3f

t'+Di

t'+pi

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Foreground/Background

- Scheduling aperiodic jobs with periodic jobs
- Foreground jobs => periodic jobs already discussed
- background jobs => aperiodic jobs
- Aperiodic jobs
- executed within the idle blocks
- Aperiodic jobs are preemptable
- May optimize response time by scheduling within schedule slack time (slack stealing).

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Slack Stealing

- Slack = f – xkwhere xk = total time allocated to periodic tasks in frame k and f = frame size
- Requirements may include some minimal aperiodic arrival rate
- Cyclic Exec executes aperiodic jobs as long as there is slack in the schedule.
- Periodic jobs must complete by deadline.

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Slack Stealing

Release times:

A1 = 4

A2 = 9.5

A3 = 10.5

Periodic Jobs Only

Without Slack stealing

A2

A3

A1

A2

A3

With Slack stealing

A2

A3

A1

A2

A3

4

8

12

16

20

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Simplifying Precedence Constraints

- To accommodate precedence and timing constraints derive a set of effective release times and deadlines
- Effective release time: no predecessors then equal to its release time. If predecessors then maximum of its own release time and the effective release times of its predecessor.
- Effective deadline: No successor, then equal to its original deadline. Otherwise minimum of its deadline the effective deadlines of its successors.

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Departure

Dispatching

Service

Server

Modeling System- Modeling the system for an average response time calculation
- Assume M/G/1 queuing model:
- Poisson arrival process (exponentially distributed inter-arrival times)
- General distribution function for service times
- Infinite queue, FIFO dispatch discipline
- Single server, single queue
- nT= # tasks; λimean arrival rate and ei mean execution time

λ = mean arrival rate, μ = mean service rate, Ts = 1/μ (service time)

ρ= λ/μ= utilization, w = items in Q, Tw = mean waiting time in Q,

q = total number of items in system,

Tq = Tw + Ts = total time waiting in system

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

...

B1

B2

B3

B4

BN

- View as one large sample space comprised of the individual aperiodic Task sample spaces (used to calculate average and second moments, E[Bi] and E[Bi2]). Let N = nT in the above diagram.
- U = total utilization of periodic jobs. So (1-U) is the fraction of processor time available for aperiodic jobs. Thus UA must be < (1-U).
- Individual events scale by 1/(1-U):
- eAi = Bi/(1-U)

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

i

W =

(i/ ) * E[Bi]/(1-U) + W0 / {(1-U)2[( 1 - UA/(1-U)]}

na

i

Average Response Time- Average queuing time inversely proportional to the square of the aperiodic bandwidth (1-U).
- Can improve average response of some jobs by using priority queues. Average queuing time increases with variance (E[x**2] = E[x] + Variance[x])
- Average response time W

Average service time Ts

Averaging queuing time Tw

i * E[Bi2]/2 = W0

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Scheduling Sporadic Jobs

- Sporadic jobs
- represent as S(d,e): d = deadline, e = execution time
- have hard deadlines,
- minimum interrelease times and maximum execution time are not known in advance
- maximum execution time is known on release
- jobs are preemptable
- Apply an acceptance test at run time
- When job is released, determine if there is a feasible schedule that includes this sporadic job
- If no feasible schedule, then reject job and notify application of rejection

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Performing an Acceptance Test

- S(d,e)released at time t in frame x-1:
- for example an interrupt is received in frame x-1.
- The deadline d is in frame (y+1) =>
- S must complete before frame y+1 begins
- Current total slack time available between frames x and y (inclusive) = Qc(x, y)
- S is rejected if
- e > Qc(x, y), OR
- some previously accepted jobs will not meet deadline
- Order waiting jobs using EDF

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Earliest Deadline First (EDF)

- EDF: priority driven scheduling algorithm with dynamic task (fixed job) priority assignment.
- earlier the deadline, higher the priority
- priorities are assigned on job release
- Jobs placed in run queue by priority
- Assumptions:
- Tasks are preemptable and independent
- Tasks have arbitrary release times, arbitrary deadlines
- Single Processor
- Optimal: EDF can produce a feasible schedule for a set of Jobs J if and only if J has a feasible schedule.

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Latest Release Time (LRT)

- Goes "backwards" in time: Treats release times as deadlines and deadlines as release times.
- job with latest release time has highest priority
- Assume jobs are preemptable
- May leave processor idle when jobs are ready, so not a priority-driven algorithm.
- Optimal: LRT can produce feasible schedule for a set of jobs J if and only if feasible schedules for J exist.

Idle

J1, 3 (0, 6]

J2, 2 (5, 8]

J3, 2 (2, 7]

J1

J3

J2

1

4

6

8

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Least Slack Time First (LST)

- LST or Maximum Laxity First (MLF)
- Dispatch job with minimum slack time: smaller slack time, higher priority.
- Optimal: Can produce feasible schedules for J if and only if feasible schedules for J exist.
- Requires knowledge of execution times, while EDF does not.
- Consequently may underutilize processor when using maximum (worst-case) analysis.

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Performing and Acceptance Test

- Beginning of each frame: perform acceptance test on any waiting sporadic tasks
- Two steps:
- Determine if sporadic task can complete execution using available slack time (subtract any slack time used by accepted tasks with deadlines before d)
- Determine if any already accepted sporadic tasks with deadlines after d will be affected

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Implementation: Calculating Slack Time

- Calculating the available slack time
- S was released within previous frame, (x - 1)
- S has deadline in frame (y + 1)so must complete execution no later than frame y
- Acceptance test performed at start of frame x
- calculated between frame x and frame immediately preceding deadline, frame y
- if deadline is in frame x then S can not be scheduled
- Suffices to know original slack time between all frame pairs within one major cycle, Q(x, y) for x, y in H.
- Assume x is in major cycle j and y is in major cycle k
- Q(x,y) = Q(x,F) + Q(1,y) + [(k - 1) - j]Q(1,F); k > j
- Q(x, y) is known if k = j, y > x.
- Q(x, x) = is known, slack in current frame

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Accepting S: Step 1

- If sporadic jobs are already in system then the available slack time is given by:

Qc(x, y) = Q(x, y) - Sum[dkd; (ek - e'k)]

slack minus remaining execution time of higher priority tasks.

e'k = time job k has already executed

The sum is over all jobs with deadline dk d.

- If S is accepted

Slack before new sporadic job's deadline:

Qs = Qc(x, y) – e

if job is accepted then store value with job

if (Qs< 0) then reject

else continue

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Accepting S: Step 2

- Check all jobs with deadlines after d to verify they will not miss their deadlines.
- d= deadline of new sporadic task
- e = execution time of new sporadic task
- Let Sl= an already accepted sporadic task with deadline dl > d.
- Let Ql= calculated slack for sporadic tasks in Sl
- Accept if Step one is valid and the following condition is valid
- Ql- e 0 for all sporadic jobs with dl>d

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Summary Acceptance Test

- Scheduler must store the following
- Precomputed slack table, Q(x, y), {x ,y = 1, 2, ..., F}
- Completed execution time of accepted sporadic jobs, e'k
- Current slack (Qs) of every sporadic job
- Optimality of Cyclic EDF (on-line algorithm)
- it is optimal compared to other schemes that perform an acceptance test at beginning of frames
- Not optimal compared to algorithms performing acceptance tests at arbitrary times.
- However, this may impact the periodic tasks which may be interrupted an arbitrary number of times in order to perform acceptance tests for released sporadic jobs.

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Practical Considerations

- Frame Overruns
- Abort job, schedule recovery job
- Execute unfinished portion as aperiodic job
- Continue executing job
- Mode changes: system reconfiguration. Assume periodic jobs are independent
- Hard-deadline:
- Soft-deadline:
- Other Workloads

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Assessing Clock-Driven Scheduling

- Advantages:
- Simplicity: account for dependencies and resource contention. No need for synchronization mechanisms.
- Timing constraints verified or enforced at frame boundaries while minimizing overhead due to context switches and IPC mechanisms. Simple scheduling algorithm to minimize overhead.
- Minimal impact of asynchronous system processing (interrupts for example)
- often verification is simple

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

Assessing Clock-Driven Scheduling

- Disadvantages:
- inflexible
- Model and implementation may be too simple and restrictive
- Difficult to add new components or change existing system parameters
- Release times must be fixed
- Must know all periodic parameters in advance
- operation modes must be explicitly enumerated and scheduled

CSE522S – Advanced Operating Systems

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