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www.BehaviorAdvisor.com. This slide show is part of a workshop on assessment of behavior given by Tom McIntyre (Dr. Mac). Your “ Do Now ” Activity. Consider the following questions and formulate a general response. Be prepared to offer your thoughts if called upon by the instructor.

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www behavioradvisor com
  • This slide show is part of a workshop on assessment of behavior given by Tom McIntyre (Dr. Mac).
your do now activity
Your “Do Now” Activity
  • Consider the following questions and formulate a general response. Be prepared to offer your thoughts if called upon by the instructor.
  • What is the causation of “inappropriate” behavior in humans? What accounts for “aberrant” or “deviant” behavior?
    • Inborn, instinctual drives
    • Learned through interaction with one’s environment and feedback from it.
    • Physiological, genetic, neurological, or biochemical
    • Psychological states and underlying psychic conflicts
    • Other… (please explain)
populist views
Populist Views
  • The weather
      • Thomas Gordon on teaching: “I am the weather…”
  • Sun spots & phases of the moon
  • Talk shows on TV 
  • Space aliens
  • Elvis impersonators
  • Mimes (my personal belief)
  • The devil
  • Any others?
so wadda ya think
So Wadda Ya Think?
  • With regards to the “Do Now” activity…

Can one view explain all instances of undesirable actions?

  • Is one view more often correct than others?
  • Models attempt to:
    • Explain the derivation of human behavior
    • Identify the causation / etiology of aberrant actions
    • Set goals and promote methods for restoring someone to a state of “normality”.
  • Models often reflect or promote an ideology.
  • “Reality is merely a commonly accepted illusion.”(unknown commentator)
some existing models bio genic bio medical
Some Existing Models: Bio-genic(Bio-medical)
  • Its premise?
  • Disordered behavior can be traced to physiological, genetic, neurological, or biochemical causes
  • Aberrant actions are explained in terms of illness/disease.
  • Treatment?
    • Surgery ?How so??When and why?
    • Medication?
    • Dietary changes?
    • Exercise?
    • Environmental modifications?
some existing models psycho dynamic
Some Existing Models: Psycho-Dynamic
  • Behavior problems due to pathological imbalance between the dynamic parts of the personality
        • Id, Superego, Ego
  • Deviant behavior is “subconscious” phenomena of inner turmoil (due to combo of biological & early environmental influences).
  • Must come to understand unconscious motivation if wish to treat it. Unless understood, the problem will not be solved.
  • Simply treating the behavior causes “symptom substitution” (One’s needs have not been met, so finds another way to meet them).
  • Educational interventions? What see in the schools?
    • Permissive accepting teacher; no restraints on behavior
    • Psychotherapy for the child (to identify & understand the causes of the inappropriate behavior)
    • Classroom in which the child can freely express feelings
  • Suitable for the public schools?
some existing models psycho ed
Some Existing Models: Psycho-Ed
  • The psychoeducational model is concerned with "unconscious motivations & underlying conflicts” (hallmarks of psychodynamic model)
  • Also recognizes the real world demands of everyday functioning in the student’s “life spaces”:
        • school
        • home
        • community.
  • Uses procedures developed for this model (LSI, crisis intervention) & borrows from others (reflective listening, ABA’s prescriptive teaching).
  • However, the development of positive interpersonal relationships is the key component in motivating EBD students to change to more acceptable behavior patterns.
some existing models ecological
Some Existing Models: Ecological
  • Some part of student’s “social ecology” is “polluted” or “out of balance”.
  • This approach studies the child within his/her social surroundings (school, home, neighborhood, playground, etc.).
  • Intervention is directed toward child's social system.
  • What are some ways in which the school might go beyond its typical educational mission to promote positive change in the student’s life spaces?
    • Student joins positive groups, such as?
    • Home supports, such as?
    • Interagency cooperation? Huh? (“Eh” for Canadians)
some existing models aba
Some Existing Models: ABA
  • Presently the most widespread & influential view
  • “ABA” is an acronym for…?
  • What do you know about ABA?
  • Disordered behavior is caused by inappropriate learning.
  • Behavior, therefore, can be changed by manipulating the consequences of those behaviors.
  • Treatment is directed only at overt, observable behaviors.
  • Non-behavioral factors such as feelings and motivation are not considered.
  • The model represents a scientific approach, using the principles & procedures of natural science.
next mama mia aba is not a singing group from scandinavia
Next:Mama Mia!ABA is not a singing group from Scandinavia
  • Consider this question:How is it that ABA became the most influential model in education of students with behavioral disabilities?
social cognitive model
Social-Cognitive Model
  • The “new kid on the block”. Combines natural science procedures (ABA) with what is known about learning, cognition, & affect/feelings/emotions (Psycho-Educational & Humanistic/Counter-school movement of early 1970s…Maslow, Rogers, etc.).
  • Albert Bandura is the pioneer in this fusion model.
  • Behavior involves continual reciprocal interactions between cognitive, behavioral, & environmental influences. Actions, personal variables, & environment constantly influence each other in what Bandura (1977) calls “triadic reciprocacy”.
  • In other words: Environmental responses to our actions shape our responses to events (ABA), but they don’t do it alone. We also think about those events & our actions. Emotions & relationships affect how we respond in situations & may overrule previously reinforced actions (Psycho-Ed).
The S-C model recognizes that people who have intact cognitive abilities (unlike autistic, mentally retarded, etc.) proficiently use symbols to communicate, anticipate future events, learn from their experiences, have the ability to regulate their actions, & often reflect upon them.
  • It is the person variables; the ability to think, act, & exhibit self control, that are most conducive to intervention in cognitively intact individuals.
  • S-C interventions have students observe, learn, & practice appropriate actions.
  • Some common interventions include training in self- instruction (leading oneself through steps), self-talk (evaluating & validating one’s actions ; cleansing oneself of inaccurate beliefs…R.E.T. ), self-restraint, anger management, social skills, & cognitive restructuring (learning steps for thinking through situations).
where do you hang your hat
Where do you hang your hat?
  • Does one model appeal to you more than the others? Why?
  • Might some models be more appropriate for diagnosing & remediating certain conditions?
  • Most professionals prefer one model while also being an “informed eclectic”?

Having a preferred model, but recognizing the validity & utility of other models. Makes use of practices from multiple models. Sees different models as being more appropriate for different individuals.

which model clickers
Which Model ?Clickers
  • Mr. Lee has created a classroom climate in which students feel welcomed and valued. When misbehavior crops up, a short, private reminder from him usually redirects the youngster. Students also strive to reach their “behavior goal of the week” in order to please him. They trust him to keep their best interests at heart & treat them respectfully.
  • Bio-genic / Bio-medical
  • Psychodynamic
  • Psychoeducational
  • Ecological
  • Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Social-cognitive
which model clickers1
Which Model ?Clickers
  • Wei’s behavior in the classroom, home, and scouts has been impulsive & overactive. His parents struggled with the choice of whether or not to administer Ritalin to him. The family and physician are now engaging in the “titration” process (adjusting the dosage for maximum positive effect & minimal side effects)
  • Bio-genic / Bio-medical
  • Psychodynamic
  • Psychoeducational
  • Ecological
  • Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Social-cognitive
which model clickers2
Which Model ?Clickers
  • Ms. Pappanikou works in an institutional setting for “youth at risk” (for life failure).In her classroom, students decide whether to work, socialize, or sleep. While she may try to engage them in a non-directive discussion of their off-task actions, she intervenes assertively only if behavior becomes aggressive(toward self or others).Youngsters who are aggressive or appear distressed are sent to a psychologist who assists the youngster in better understanding his/her feelings. The school offers many therapies (art, movement, talk).
  • Bio-genic / Bio-medical
  • Psychodynamic
  • Psychoeducational
  • Ecological
  • Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Social-cognitive
which model clickers3
Which Model ?Clickers
  • Senora Martinez is concerned about the tantrum behavior of Tyrice. She collected data on when, where, and for how long specific behaviors occurred. She also noted what happened before and after the behavior.
  • At a team meeting it became apparent that the tantrums were designed to gain the teacher’s undivided attention for a length of time. Now when tantrums occur, the child is isolated and ignored. Appropriate ways of seeking attention are taught and positively recognized when used.
  • Bio-genic / Bio-medical
  • Psychodynamic
  • Psychoeducational
  • Ecological
  • Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Social-cognitive
which model clickers4
Which Model ?Clickers

Mr. Szabo is teaching his students how to use the problem solving steps when they are unsure of how to respond to pressures & decisions in their lives. He’s also teaching them to avoid stinkin’ thinkin’… negative self talk in which they degrade themselves & their abilities.

Bio-genic / Bio-medical




Applied Behavior Analysis