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Weed and Vegetation Management in Grape Production

Weed and Vegetation Management in Grape Production

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Weed and Vegetation Management in Grape Production

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  1. Weed and Vegetation Management in Grape Production Jeffrey Derr Professor of Weed Science Virginia Tech Charlottesville VVA talk 1/30/14

  2. 2014 Pest Management Guides Horticultural and Forest Crops • http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-017/456-017.html Weed control section for grapes • http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-017/Section-3_Grapes-3.pdf

  3. Weed identification Books and Websites • Weeds of the Northeast – Cornell Press • Weeds of the South - University of Georgia Press • Virginia Tech weed identification website: http://oak.ppws.vt.edu/weedindex.htm

  4. Vegetation Management Plan Cover crop between the rows - Erosion control, ability to drive through vineyard soon after a rain Initially bare ground within the grape row - weeds, cover crops suppress vine growth

  5. Weed control in row middles Few options after planting grapes • Aim (carfentrazone) -contact herbicide that will control small annual broadleaf weeds. • Establish cover crop, control broadleaf weeds, kill cover crops in strips prior to planting

  6. Perennial Cover Crop Evaluation for Enhanced Vineyard Floor Management Funded by the Virginia Wine Board/ VVA/VDACS Trials in Virginia Beach, Blacksburg, and cooperating vineyards Evaluate cool- and warm-season perennial grasses for use between rows of grapes

  7. Project Goals • Evaluate ease of establishment and persistence for cool- and warm-season cover crops between vine rows. • Evaluate weed suppression for each perennial cover crop. • Determine crop suitability criteria such as: traffic, drought, and cold tolerance, as well as maintenance requirements. • Evaluate cover crop influence on overall soil health.

  8. Cool-season Establishment - Blacksburg

  9. Cool-season Establishment - Blacksburg

  10. Warm-season Establishment - Blacksburg

  11. Establishment – Virginia Beach Good – tall fescues (Fawn, DTT 43, DTT 20, Justice), zoysiagrass + Gotham hard fescue Poor – Kentucky bluegrass, hybrid bluegrass, Bighorn GT, Companion grass, Rough and Ready, Perennial ryegrass, zoysia + perennial; ryegrass, blue grama

  12. Traffic tolerance Good with the tall fescues, Companion grass, Rough and Ready Fair with Kentucky bluegrass Poor to fair with Bighorn GT, creeping red fescue

  13. Cover crops – Cool-season glyphosate tolerant • Big Horn GT – sheeps fescue • Aurora Gold hard fescue • Compared to Gotham hard fescue

  14. Weed life cycle Annuals Summer - grass, broadleaf, sedge, other monocots Winter – grass, broadleaf Biennials– broadleaf Perennials– grass, sedge, other monocots, broadleaves

  15. Summer annual grasses Large crabgrass Goosegrass Giant foxtail

  16. Winter annual grasses Italian (Annual) ryegrass Annual bluegrass

  17. Annual broadleaves Summer common lambsquarters, smooth pigweed, common ragweed, ivyleaf morningglory Winter vetch, horseweed, fleabane, common chickweed, henbit

  18. Summer annual broadleaves Common ragweed tall morningglory Common lambsquarters Smooth pigweed

  19. Winter annual broadleaves Vetch Henbit Common chickweed Horseweed

  20. Biennials Musk thistle Wild carrot

  21. Perennial Monocots Perennial grasses • clump - tall fescue, orchardgrass • creeping - quackgrass, bermudagrass, johnsongrass Perennial sedges – yellow nutsedge Other perennial monocots– wild garlic

  22. Perennial grasses Johnsongrass Quackgrass Bermudagrass

  23. Yellow and Purple Nutsedge Perennial sedges (rhizomes, tubers)

  24. Other monocots Wild garlic (perennial)

  25. Perennial broadleaves • Simple – dandelion, buckhorn plantain • Creeping - bindweed, brambles, poison ivy, horsenettle, hemp dogbane

  26. Simple perennial broadleaves Dandelion Buckhorn plantain

  27. Creeping perennial broadleaves Poison ivy Horsenettle Hedge bindweed

  28. Perennial broadleaf weeds Hemp dogbane Black locust

  29. Grape Weed Control • Biological – little available • Cultural • Chemical

  30. Vegetation Management Plan • Killed strip within the row to reduce weed competition • Mowed (grass) alleyways for erosion control, drivability soon after rain

  31. Site Preparation Goal is to reduce weed populations, especially for perennial weeds • Cover crops - cropping with competitive or allelopathic crops, such as rye or sudangrass, for 1 to 2 to two years before planting • Grow alternative crops like corn where troublesome weeds like yellow nutsedge or broadleaf weeds can be controlled using herbicides that cannot be used in fruit. • Establish permanent cover

  32. Site prep - Chemical control • Glyphosate - apply in strips in fall for fescue, orchardgrass control - plant into killed strips

  33. Cultural control • Cultivation (mechanical) – suppress perennials, break crusts, soil erosion, root damage • Cultivation (flame) – tree injury, fire hazard • Black plastic, fabrics – habitat for rodents, cost • Organic mulches – improve moisture penetration, habitat for rodents, cost

  34. Chemical controlPreemergence herbicides • Match to weed problems • Apply prior to weed germination (clean soil or add a postemergence) • Apply proper rate for soil type (organic matter, soil texture) • Need rain or irrigation for activation • Shorter residual under wet conditions

  35. Preemergence herbicides for grapes – annual grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds • Surflan (oryzalin), Prowl (pendimethalin), Devrinol (napropamide) – annual grasses, some broadleaves • Can be used at planting after soil settles

  36. Preemergence control – small-seeded broadleaf weeds • Trellis (Gallery) (isoxaben) • Combine with Surflan (oryzalin), Prowl (pendimethalin), Devrinol (napropamide) – annual grasses, some broadleaves • Can be used at planting after soil settles • 165 day PHI

  37. Preemergence herbicides for grapes – annual grasses, small-seeded broadleaf weeds, suppression of yellow nutsedge • Solicam (norflurazon) • Vines must be established 2 years

  38. Pre and early POST control – annual grasses, small-seeded broadleaf weeds, suppression of yellow nutsedge, dandelion Matrix (rimsulfuron) • Vines must be established 1 year • Short residual • Combined with Surflan, Prowl, etc. for broader-spectrum control • 14 day PHI

  39. Pre and early Post control – annual broadleaf weeds, annual grasses Goal, GoalTender (oxyfluorfen) • vines established 3 years unless on trellis wire at least 3 feet above soil surface • combine with Surflan, Prowl, etc. for improved annual grass control

  40. Chateau (flumioxazin) – grapes • Dormant applications preferred • Treat in early spring and fall • Could add a preemergence grass herbicide, especially under high annual grass pressure or lower rates • Add a postemergence herbicide for control of emerged weeds • Use directed sprays, do not apply overtop of grapes

  41. Chateau (flumioxazin) – grapes • 6 to 12 ounces of product per treated acre, which equates to 0.19 to 0.38 pounds active ingredient per acre. • Maximum use rate per year is 24 ounces of product. • Use of 6 ounces of Chateau per acre when applications are made to very sandy/gravelly soils and tree or grape vines are established less than 3 years.

  42. Pre and early Post control – annual broadleaf weeds, annual grasses Chateau (flumioxazin) • Vines established at least 2 years unless vines protected with grow tubes, waxed containers, etc.

  43. Results withChateau • Strength is annual broadleaf control • Excellent control – common lambsquarters, pigweed, velvetleaf, jimsonweed, common ragweed, prickly sida, bittercress Buckhorn plantain, yellow woodsorrel from seed • Good control – annual morningglories, cocklebur

  44. Results with Chateau • Fair to excellent control of annual grasses: Large crabgrass, yellow foxtail, giant foxtail, johnsongrass from seed • No control of yellow nutsedge or bermudagrass at use rates

  45. Preemergence control - annual broadleaf weeds, annual grasses Princep (simazine), Karmex (diuron) • Vines established 3 years • Inexpensive broadleaf control • Match rate to soil type • Combine with a grass herbicide

  46. Preemergence herbicides for grapes – winter applied – cool-season grasses, winter annuals Kerb, Casoron – winter-applied, cools season perennial grasses, winter annuals • For control of quackgrass, tall fescue, orchardgrass, plus winter annuals

  47. Pre – annual grasses, annual broadleaf weeds Alion (indaziflam) • Vines established at least 5 years

  48. Alion (indaziflam) • -sprayable form 1.67 lb/gal caution label • Preemergence with significant post activity • different mode of action (cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor) • -directed spray • -use rate 5 fl oz/acre (0.065 lb ai/A) (only 1 appl/year at that rate)

  49. Alion (indaziflam) • Strength • – controls annual grasses (crabgrass, goosegrass, foxtails, annual bluegrass, annual ryegrass) • many annual broadleaf weeds (jimsonweed, pigweed, horseweed, lambsquarters, velvetleaf, eclipta, spurge, henbit, chickweed, speedwell, bittercress) • Long residual • Weakness Does not control morningglory or yellow nutsedge

  50. Postemergence herbicides for grapes