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WEED MANAGEMENT. Economic Importance of weeds (Contd.). Competition Nutrients, water and light Impede harvesting Clog drainage ditches Reduce yield (handout #1) 20-25 % total production costs. Economic Importance of weeds. Soil and air temp-higher in bare ground

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economic importance of weeds contd
Economic Importance of weeds (Contd.)
  • Competition
    • Nutrients, water and light
  • Impede harvesting
  • Clog drainage ditches
  • Reduce yield (handout #1)
  • 20-25 % total production costs
economic importance of weeds
Economic Importance of weeds
  • Soil and air temp-higher in bare ground
  • Efficacy of the soil applied pesticides can be reduced
  • Interfere with the operation of low volume irrigation
weeds in citrus orchard
Weeds in Citrus Orchard
  • Grasses
  • Sedges
  • Compositae
  • Gourds
  • Morning Glory
  • Nightshades
  • Milk Weed
common weeds
Common weeds
  • Guinea grass- Panicum maximum
  • Brown top millet- Panicum fasciculatum
  • Verbanasp
  • Johnsongrass- Sorghum halapense
  • Bemudagrass- Cynodon dactylon
  • Ragweed- Parthenium hysterophorus
  • Sowthistle- Socnhus sp.
  • Climbing Hempweed - Mikania scandens

Contd.

common weeds6
Common weeds
  • Texas virgin bower - Clematis drummondi
  • Ipomea amnicola
  • Morning Glory- Ipomea hederacea
  • Ipomea spp.
  • Purple nightshade
  • Silverleaf nightshade
  • Black nightshade- Solanum nigrum
  • Milkvine- Cynachum unifarium

contd.

common weeds7
Common weeds
  • Amaranthus palmeri
  • White poppy (Prickly poppy)- Argemone albifloria
  • Henbit- Lamium amplexicanle
  • Old’s man beard
  • Phacelia
  • Climbing milk weed
how to control weeds
How to Control Weeds?
  • Tillage
  • Managed Cover crop
  • Chemical Weed Control
  • Biological Methods
tillage
Tillage
  • Cultivation-no longer used
  • Problems
    • Difficult to remove weeds from tree row
    • Will spread perennials: nutsedge
    • Water erosion on slopes
    • Compaction of soil
managed cover crops
Managed cover crops
  • Benefit: Low growing weeds predominate.
  • Problems:
    • conversion of annuals to perennials
    • Fert and water use by cover crops
    • Rodents have a place to live
chemical weed control contd
Chemical Weed Control (Contd.)

Benefits

  • Clean orchard to work
  • Fewer host plants for fungi
  • Roots return to upper layer of the soil
  • Soil O.M. increases
  • Increased yield
  • Fewer snails and aphids
chemical weed control contd12
Chemical Weed Control (Contd.)

History

  • First materials (Handout # 2)
  • Development of Chemical Weed Control for Texas Citrus orchards (Handout #3)
chemical weed control contd13
Chemical Weed Control (Contd.)

Federal and State Regulations

  • Label
    • properties, advantages, limitations, and precautions
  • Application:
    • select rate of application based on the soil type
    • Calibration of the equipment
chemical weed control contd14
Chemical Weed Control (Contd.)
  • Herbicide
    • Toxicity-Handout # 4
    • Safety- Handout # 5
classification herbicide contd
Classification-Herbicide (Contd.)
  • Chemical affinity
  • Timing of application (Handout #6)
    • preemergence
    • postemergence
  • Persistence
    • residual
    • non residual
classification herbicide
Classification-Herbicide
  • Formulation (handout # 6)
    • Wettable Powder (WP)
    • Dry Flowable (DF)
    • Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC)
    • Water Soluble (WS)
    • Granular (G)
requirements for an effective preemergence herbicide
Requirements for an effective preemergence herbicide
  • Safe for trees
  • Long lasting weed control
  • Broad spectrum of weeds controlled
  • Low cost (handout # 8)
requirements for an effective postemergence herbicide
Requirements for an effective postemergence herbicide
  • Safe for trees
  • Broad spectrum of weeds controlled
  • Must be translocated (systemic) to control perennial weeds
  • Low cost (handout # 9)
techniques of herbicide applications
Techniques of herbicide applications
  • Spray from the boom
  • Spot spray
  • Injection into irrigation water
  • Impregnated on fertilizers
problems herbicides
Problems-Herbicides
  • More phytophagous mites
    • More dust-fewer predators-more mites
  • Vegetation shifts from annual toward perennials
  • Resistant plants become established
  • Injury to trees (http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu/txt/fairs/27825)
  • Water penetration may become a problem