Just-in-Time Lecture www.pitt.edu/~super/ China Earthquake: 12 May 2008
Mission Statement • The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide.
Mission Statement • The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide. What are the Disaster Supercourse & JIT lecture?
What is the Disaster Supercourse? What is a JIT lecture? http://www.pitt.edu/~super1
Lecture objectives • To provide the best possible scientific information about the China earthquake, 12 May 2008 • To teach how the science can help Chinese to be prepared for primary & secondary prevention of consequences of earthquake
Lecture Objectives • In this lecture you will find: • How the vulnerability conditions can change a natural hazard to a disaster?
What is the Earthquake? The shaking of earth caused by waves moving on and below the earth's surface and causing: surface faulting, tremors vibration, liquefaction, landslides, aftershocks and/or tsunamis.
How Earthquake Happens? • It caused by a sudden slip on a FAULT. • Stresses in the earth's outer layer push sides of fault together. • Stress builds up & rocks slips suddenly, releasing energy in waves that travel through the earth's CRUST & cause the shaking that we Feel during an earthquake.
Earthquake Strength Measures I) Magnitude & II) Intensity I) Magnitude: • Definition:A measure of actual physical energy release at its source as estimated from instrumental observations. • Scale:Richter Scale • By Charles Richter, 1936 • Open-ended scale • The oldest & most widely used Noji 1997
Earthquake Strength Measures I) Magnitude & II) Intensity II) Intensity: • Definition:a measure of the felt or perceived effects of an earthquake rather than the strength of the earthquake itself. • Scale:Modified Mercalli (MM) scale • 12-point scale, ranges from barely perceptible earthquakes at MM I to near total destruction at MM XII
Magnitude versus Intensity • Magnitude refers to the force of the earthquake as a whole, while intensity refers to the effects of an earthquake at a particular site. • An earthquake can have just one magnitude, while intensity is usually strongest close to the epicenter & is weaker the farther a site is from the epicenter. • The intensity of an earthquake is more germane to its public health consequences than its magnitude.
Public Health Consequences of Earthquakes Please see the following addresses for above title: Part I. http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec13021/index.htm Part II. http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec13051/index.htm
The most populous country 3rd largest country 23 provinces 5 autonomous regions 4 municipalities 2 special administrative regions (Hong Kong & Macau) 56 ethnic groups: 91.6% Han people 8.4% others Peoples Republic of China
World’s economic superpower Fastest-growing nation for the past 25 years Average annual GDP growth rate above 10% Economic Development in China www.Heritage.org
Urban areas: Street clinics – primary health care District hospitals – secondary care City hospitals – tertiary care Rural area: Village clinics – primary care Township hospitals – secondary care Country hospitals – tertiary care Health System Structure in China
China’s Health Statistics Source: WHO
Earthquake Drought Land subsidence Typhoon Flood Tsunami Natural Hazards in China
History of Deadly Earthquakes in China Source: Wikipedia
Sichuan Province Area 485,000 km² Population (2004) 87,250,000 (3rd) Density 180 /km² (22nd) Major nationalities Han 95.0% Yi 2.6% Tibetan 1.5% Qiang 0.4%
Economy of Sichuan Province • Heavy industries: Coal, energy, iron & steel industry • Major producer of Rice & Wheat • Large output of Pork & Silkworm • > 132 kinds of underground mineral resources
Magnitude: 7.9 Richter scale Local earthquake time: 14.48 Beijing-time Location: 30.986°N, 103.364°E Depth: 19 km (11.8 miles) West Sichuan Earthquake, 12th May 2008
Tectonics of Sichuan Earthquake Motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan Earthquake Aftershocks 4-5 Richter scale: 105 aftershocks > 5 Richter scale: 54 aftershocks Aftershocks caused: Death: 1 Injured: 400 Toppled houses: 70,000 Source: China Seismological Bureau
Harsh Response Situation Difficult access by land due to extensive damage to physical infrastructure Constrained access by air due to heavy rains also
National Mourning National Mourning Three-days period of national mourning The Chinese National Flag and Regional Flags of Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR were raised at half mast. Yahoo news
Death Tolls & Casualties (as of 23rd May)Affected population: 10.59 Millions and 5.2 Millions left homeless Source: OCHA reports
Economical Losses Sichuan Property Toll May Top 190 Billion Yuan According to insurance experts: huge property losses from the disaster but modest insurance claims. www.caijing.com.cn
Irrigation systems for 100,000 hectares of paddy fields > 50,000 greenhouses 7.3 million square meters of livestock barns Agricultural Damage Relief web
Livelihoods of many of affected people is highly dependent on agriculture Vulnerable to food insecurity Loss of cereal stocks Damaged agriculture production Impaired income generation Agricultural Damage
Building Damage Number of damaged/collapsed: >15,000,000 Building earthquake resistant structures makes good economic sense: 3-5% for typical buildings
Giant Pandas Unknown situation of 280 giant pandas in Wolong National Nature Reserve www.iht.com
12% of dead were students and their teachers Many Schools Collapsed Closed or locked Emergency exits Damage to Schools Buildings Source: Reuters Foundation Date: 24 May 2008
The world just passed a 2-years global campaign of Safe Schools The 2006-7 Global campaign focused on promoting the safety of school buildings & mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction (DRR) into school curricula or at least school activities. How are safe the schools in your community? 2006-7 International Campaign on School Safety
According WHO: Treating The Injured Communicable Disease Surveillance & Control Ensuring Safe Water And Food Supply Immediate & Long-term Mental Health & Psychosocial Support Reconstruction Of Health Care System In The Affected Areas Public Health Priorities
> 3.3 million tents Garbage Treatment Facilities & Sewage Treatment Facilities Chemical proof protective clothing, Shoes and masks Radiation detector (X ray and Y ray survey meter, Personal dosimeter) Medical Instruments like ECG, Operational Kits, etc Medication for infectious disease Urgent Needs Source: UNOCHA situation report NO 6, 7 & 8
Deployment of public health experts to the field, including TB experts Mental health & Psychosocial support personnel Public Health Response (as of 21st May) OCHA Report
Do not forget children in Sichuan! At least 5,498 children have been left alone in Sichuan Province's quake zone, either because they have been orphaned or their parents cannot be located
Do not forget elderly in Sichuan! About 4,800 elderly people left alone due to death of their family or they have been separated from all their relatives
Secondary hazards: Possible damage to nuclear facilities & radioactive sources 32 radioactive sources in affected area MEP Officials: Safely shut down of all nuclear facilities after the quake No leakage of radioactive substance Health system responsibility: Proactive approach to health consequences of radioactive exposure Collaborate with MEP to make ensure of no radioactive leakage
Secondary hazards: Possible dam failure 30 cm movement of China's largest earth-rock dam due to earthquake 400 damaged dams with possible threat to downstream people
Secondary hazards: Derail & fired train Carrying gasoline 26 hours lasting fire Evacuation of 900 residents due to fears of tank cars explosion
Lake Formation & Flood Threat Creating natural dams by moved down rocks into rivers Formation of 21 lakes throughout the basin Dangers due to earthquake-created dams: Upstream floods Instability of the piles of rubble Bursting the dam by another quake Downstream floods by cascade of water Evacuation of thousands of people from Beichuan
30 years continuous evolution in the practice of Crisis or Disaster Management Civil defense Emergency assistance Disaster response and relief Humanitarian assistance Emergency management Civil protection Disaster mitigation and prevention Disaster Risk Management Strategic shift from managing a disastrous event to more preventive and proactive approaches!!
What is Disaster risk reduction (disaster reduction or DRR)? The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development !
A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. What is the Hazard?
What is the Vulnerability? The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmentalfactors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. Vulnerable Sichuan: Unprepared people Non-resistant house & school building High-density population etc.
What is Risk? The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards & vulnerable conditions. Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability
What is a Disaster ? A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.