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Just-in-Time Lecture. www.pitt.edu/~super/. China Earthquake: 12 May 2008. Mission Statement. The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide. Mission Statement.

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Just-in-Time Lecture

www.pitt.edu/~super/

China Earthquake: 12 May 2008


Mission Statement

  • The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide.


Mission Statement

  • The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide.

What are the Disaster Supercourse & JIT lecture?


What is the Disaster Supercourse?

What is a JIT lecture?

http://www.pitt.edu/~super1


Lecture objectives

  • To provide the best possible scientific

    information about the China

    earthquake, 12 May 2008

  • To teach how the science can help

    Chinese to be prepared for primary &

    secondary prevention of consequences of

    earthquake


Lecture Objectives

  • In this lecture you will find:

  • How the vulnerability conditions can change

    a natural hazard to a disaster?


What is the Earthquake?

The shaking of earth caused by waves moving on and below the earth's surface and causing: surface faulting, tremors vibration, liquefaction, landslides, aftershocks and/or tsunamis.


How Earthquake Happens?

  • It caused by a sudden slip on a FAULT.

  • Stresses in the earth's

    outer layer push sides of

    fault together.

  • Stress builds up & rocks

    slips suddenly, releasing

    energy in waves that travel

    through the earth's CRUST

    & cause the shaking that we

    Feel during an earthquake.


Earthquake Strength Measures

I) Magnitude & II) Intensity

I) Magnitude:

  • Definition:A measure of actual physical energy release at its source as estimated from instrumental observations.

  • Scale:Richter Scale

    • By Charles Richter, 1936

    • Open-ended scale

    • The oldest & most widely used

Noji 1997


Earthquake Strength Measures

I) Magnitude & II) Intensity

II) Intensity:

  • Definition:a measure of the felt or perceived effects of an earthquake rather than the strength of the earthquake itself.

  • Scale:Modified Mercalli (MM) scale

    • 12-point scale, ranges from barely perceptible earthquakes at MM I to near total destruction at MM XII


Magnitude versus Intensity

  • Magnitude refers to the force of the earthquake as

    a whole, while intensity refers to the effects of an

    earthquake at a particular site.

  • An earthquake can have just one magnitude, while

    intensity is usually strongest close to the epicenter

    & is weaker the farther a site is from the epicenter.

  • The intensity of an earthquake is more germane to

    its public health consequences than its magnitude.


Public Health Consequences

of Earthquakes

Please see the following addresses for above title:

Part I.

http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec13021/index.htm

Part II.

http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec13051/index.htm


The most populous country

3rd largest country

23 provinces

5 autonomous regions

4 municipalities

2 special administrative regions (Hong Kong & Macau)

56 ethnic groups:

91.6% Han people

8.4% others

Peoples Republic of China


World’s economic superpower

Fastest-growing nation for the past 25 years

Average annual GDP growth rate above 10%

Economic Development in China

www.Heritage.org


Urban areas:

Street clinics – primary health care

District hospitals – secondary care

City hospitals – tertiary care

Rural area:

Village clinics – primary care

Township hospitals – secondary care

Country hospitals – tertiary care

Health System Structure in China



Earthquake

Drought

Land subsidence

Typhoon

Flood

Tsunami

Natural Hazards in China


10 top disaster in china sorted by damage us
10 Top Disaster in China Sorted by Damage US$



Sichuan province
Sichuan Province

Area 485,000 km²

Population (2004) 87,250,000 (3rd)

Density 180 /km² (22nd)

Major nationalities

Han 95.0%

Yi 2.6%

Tibetan 1.5%

Qiang 0.4%


Economy of sichuan province
Economy of Sichuan Province

  • Heavy industries: Coal, energy, iron & steel industry

  • Major producer of Rice & Wheat

  • Large output of Pork & Silkworm

  • > 132 kinds of underground mineral resources


Magnitude: 7.9 Richter scale

Local earthquake time: 14.48 Beijing-time

Location: 30.986°N, 103.364°E

Depth: 19 km (11.8 miles)

West Sichuan Earthquake, 12th May 2008


Tectonics of sichuan earthquake
Tectonics of Sichuan Earthquake

Motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin


Sichuan earthquake aftershocks
Sichuan Earthquake Aftershocks

4-5 Richter scale: 105 aftershocks

> 5 Richter scale: 54 aftershocks

Aftershocks caused:

Death: 1

Injured: 400

Toppled houses: 70,000

Source: China Seismological Bureau


Harsh response situation
Harsh Response Situation

Difficult access by land due to extensive damage to physical infrastructure

Constrained access by air due to heavy rains also


National mourning

National Mourning

National Mourning

Three-days period of national mourning

The Chinese National Flag and Regional Flags of Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR were raised at half mast.

Yahoo news


Death Tolls & Casualties (as of 23rd May)Affected population: 10.59 Millions and 5.2 Millions left homeless

Source: OCHA reports


Economical losses
Economical Losses

Sichuan Property Toll May Top 190 Billion Yuan

According to insurance experts: huge property losses from the disaster but modest insurance claims.

www.caijing.com.cn



Irrigation systems for 100,000 hectares of paddy fields

> 50,000 greenhouses

7.3 million square meters of livestock barns

Agricultural Damage

Relief web


Livelihoods of many of affected people is highly dependent on agriculture

Vulnerable to food insecurity

Loss of cereal stocks

Damaged agriculture production

Impaired income generation

Agricultural Damage


Building damage
Building Damage on agriculture

Number of damaged/collapsed: >15,000,000

Building earthquake resistant structures makes good economic sense: 3-5% for typical buildings


Giant pandas
Giant Pandas on agriculture

Unknown situation of 280 giant pandas in Wolong National Nature Reserve

www.iht.com


Damage to schools buildings

12% of dead were students and their teachers on agriculture

Many Schools Collapsed

Closed or locked Emergency exits

Damage to Schools Buildings

Source: Reuters Foundation Date: 24 May 2008


2006 7 international campaign on school safety

The world just passed a 2-years global campaign of Safe Schools

The 2006-7 Global campaign focused on promoting the safety of school buildings & mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction (DRR) into school curricula or at least school activities.

How are safe the schools in your community?

2006-7 International Campaign on School Safety


According WHO: Schools

Treating The Injured

Communicable Disease Surveillance & Control

Ensuring Safe Water And Food Supply

Immediate & Long-term Mental Health & Psychosocial Support

Reconstruction Of Health Care System In The Affected Areas

Public Health Priorities


> 3.3 million tents Schools

Garbage Treatment Facilities & Sewage Treatment Facilities

Chemical proof protective clothing, Shoes and masks

Radiation detector (X ray and Y ray survey meter, Personal dosimeter)

Medical Instruments like ECG, Operational Kits, etc

Medication for infectious disease

Urgent Needs

Source: UNOCHA situation report NO 6, 7 & 8


Deployment of public health experts to the field, including Schools

TB experts

Mental health & Psychosocial support personnel

Public Health Response (as of 21st May)

OCHA Report


Do not forget children in sichuan
Do not forget children in Sichuan! Schools

At least 5,498 children have been left alone in Sichuan Province's quake zone, either because they have been orphaned or their parents cannot be located


Do not forget elderly in sichuan
Do not forget elderly in Sichuan! Schools

About 4,800 elderly people left alone due to death of their family or they have been separated from all their relatives


Secondary hazards possible damage to nuclear facilities radioactive sources
Secondary hazards: Schools Possible damage to nuclear facilities & radioactive sources

32 radioactive sources in affected area

MEP Officials:

Safely shut down of all nuclear facilities after the quake

No leakage of radioactive substance

Health system responsibility:

Proactive approach to health consequences of radioactive exposure

Collaborate with MEP to make ensure of no radioactive leakage


Secondary hazards possible dam failure
Secondary hazards: Possible dam failure Schools

30 cm movement of China's largest earth-rock dam due to earthquake

400 damaged dams with possible threat to downstream people


Secondary hazards derail fired train
Secondary hazards: Derail & fired train Schools

Carrying gasoline

26 hours lasting fire

Evacuation of 900 residents due to fears of tank cars explosion


Lake formation flood threat
Lake Formation & Flood Threat Schools

Creating natural dams by moved down rocks into rivers

Formation of 21 lakes throughout the basin

Dangers due to earthquake-created dams:

Upstream floods

Instability of the piles of rubble

Bursting the dam by another quake

Downstream floods by cascade of water

Evacuation of thousands of people from Beichuan


30 years continuous evolution in the practice of crisis or disaster management
30 years continuous evolution in the Schoolspractice of Crisis or Disaster Management

Civil defense

Emergency assistance

Disaster response and relief

Humanitarian assistance

Emergency management

Civil protection

Disaster mitigation and prevention

Disaster Risk Management

Strategic shift from managing a disastrous event to more preventive and proactive approaches!!


What is disaster risk reduction disaster reduction or drr
What is Disaster risk reduction Schools(disaster reduction or DRR)?

The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development !


A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

What is the Hazard?


What is the vulnerability
What is the Vulnerability? activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmentalfactors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.

Vulnerable Sichuan:

Unprepared people

Non-resistant house & school building

High-density population

etc.


What is risk
What is Risk? activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards & vulnerable conditions.

Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability


What is a disaster
What is a Disaster ? activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.


What is a disaster1
What is a Disaster? activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

A disaster is a function of the risk process.

It results from the combination of hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk.

What is a Disaster?


Sichuan earthquake risk model
Sichuan earthquake: Risk model activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

Maybe Sichuan was not able to modify the hazard part of the earthquake risk model, and predict it precisely, BUT they could assess their vulnerability conditions and reduced them!

This has been the same experience in Bam & Kashmir, Yogyakarta !


Just-in-Time Education activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

Let’s teach the communities right now !

Risk awareness & Knowledge development including education, training, research and information are of the important fields of action for Disaster Risk Reduction!


Information …. activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

  • People need information as much as

    water, food, medicine or shelter.

  • Information can save lives, livelihoods &

    resources.

  • Lack of information can make

    people victims of disaster.

World Disaster Report 2005 – IFRC/RCS


What we should do/do not before, activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

during & after the earthquake?

Please read carefully at:

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/faq/prepare.html


Main lesson learned
Main Lesson Learned activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

So, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale is a big earthquake, but not necessarily equal to a disaster. It is just movement of the earth crust. Our vulnerability has changed it to a disaster!!


References
References activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.


We wish to express our warm thanks to GDHNet faculties and all groups that contributed their valuable materials.


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