Introduction to Motor Development Chapter 1
Learning Objectives • Define human development and human motor development • Explain why the study of human motor development is important • Describe the four domains of human development and explain how they interact • Explain the concepts of development, maturation, and growth, and describe the elements of developmental change • Define common terms in the study of human motor development • Define the terms gross and fine movement, and explain how they are important in human motor development • Describe the process–product controversy and how it relates to human motor development • Define various terms for age periods throughout the lifespan • Define various stages of human development • List the periods and describe the history of the field of motor development • Explain the phrase interdisciplinary approach to motor development
Human behavior is not compartmentalized; there is a complex system of constant, reciprocal exchanges among an individual’s cognitive, affective, motor, and physical being
What is Motor Development? • Human Motor developmentis. . . • Process through which we pass during the course of our life • Change that occurs in our ability to move • A field of study
Various Definitions • “changes in motor behavior which reflect the interaction of the maturing organism and its environment” (Notes from Scholarly Directions Committee, 1974) • “changes in movement competencies from infancy to adulthood and involves many aspects of human behavior, both as they affect movement development and as movement development affects them” (Keogh, 1977)
Various Definitions • “the change in motor behavior across the lifespan” (Clark & Whitehall, 1989) • “the sequential, continuous age-related process whereby an individual progresses from simple, unorganized, and unskilled movement to the achievement of highly organized, complex motor skills and finally to the adjustment of skills that accompanies aging” (Haywood & Getchell, 2005)
Working Definition for this text “Motor development is the study of changes in human motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes that underlie these changes, and the factors that affect them.” (Payne & Isaacs, 2007)
Why is the study of motor development important? • To • Understand present motor behavior • What is happening and why it is happening • Understand what this behavior was like in the past and why • Understand what the behavior will be like in the future and why
Domains of Human Development • The four domains are useful for categorizing the study of human and motor development • Domains are not discrete
Domains • Cognitive domain • Concerns human intellectual development • Affective domain • Concerned with the social and emotional aspects of human development • Motor domain • Development of human movement and factors that affect that development • Physical domain • All types of physical/bodily change
A Definition of the term Human Development “…changes that all human beings face across their lifespan. Such changes result from increasing age as well as one’s experiences in life, one’s genetic potential, and the interactions of all three factors at any given time. Therefore, development is an interactional process that leads to changes in behavior over the lifespan.” (Motor Development Task Force, 1995)
Elements of Developmental Change • Six components of developmental change • Qualitative • Sequential • Cumulative • Directional • Multifactorial • Individual
Definitions of Development, Maturation, and Growth Development Growth Maturation Development includes both growth and maturation • Development is a term referring to the progressions and regressions that occur throughout the lifespan • Growth is the structural aspect of development • Maturationdeals with the functional changes in human development.
Maturation and Growth • Growth is quantitative – increase in size • Maturation is qualitative – functions of organs and tissues • Growth and maturation are interrelated • As the body grows, functions improve • As we age, growth slows, but maturation continues throughout the lifespan
Terms • Developmental directions • Cephalocaudal • From head to tail • Can be applied developmentally through the study of walking • Proximodistal • From those points close to the body’s center to those points close to the periphery • Prenatal growth and acquisition of motor skill
Terms • Differentiation • Progression from gross, immature movement to precise, well-controlled, intentional movement • Integration • Motor systems are able to function together as ability progresses
How does the child in this picture demonstrate the concept of integration?
Terms • Gross movement • Movement controlled by the large muscles or muscle groups • Legs • Fine movement • Movement controlled by the small muscles or muscle groups • Hands
Terms Two controversial views on measurement in motor development • Process Approach • Emphasizes the movement without consideration for the outcome • How a child catches a ball • Product Approach • Emphasizes the outcome of a movement • How much control did the child have while catching the ball?
Terms • Age periods throughout the lifespan • Accepted age periods are helpful in discussions concerning development throughout the lifespan • The term “stages” is often substituted for the term “age periods”
Stages of Development • Stages of development • Phase, time, levels, periods • Provides manageable portions of behavior • Controversy over whether the stages of development actually exist • Does life proceed smoothly and continuously? • Is life discontinuous with abrupt behavior changes?
Precursor Period (1787-1928) Descriptive observation of human movement Maturational Period(1928-1946) Biological processes shape human development Bayle’s scale of motor development Periods in the History of Motor Development
Normative/Descriptive Period (1946-1970) Dormant period (1946-1960) Norm referenced standards for motor performance measurement (1960’s) Kephart’s Slow Learner in the Classroom Kephart maintained that certain movement activities enhanced academic performance Not supported by research, still influences professional practice today Biomechanical analysis Process-Oriented Period (1970-present) Describe the process, not just the change in movement Dynamical systems theory Psychologist return to the study of motor behavior via processing information Periods in the History of Motor Development
Interdisciplinary Approach in the Study of Motor Development • Today, there is interaction among the 3 subareas of motor behavior (motor learning, motor control, motor development), with biomechanics and exercise physiology • Working together, experts are able to discern more accurately subtle movement changes and differences