Chapter 12The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages, 1300-1450 • Areas of focus: England, France, Italy and Holland/Flanders • Main events: the Black Death, Hundred Years’ War, and the Babylonian Captivity/Great Schism
Politics • England, France and Spain developed into nation-states, meaning that most of the people who spoke their language lived under one ruler in a unified state. • Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453): began as feudal war over disputed claims of kingship and land (fought off and on for 116 years). England wanted to recover land lost to France years prior and also over succession to the throne of France (Charles IV died without an heir, next relative was Edward III of England). The French nobility refused an English king. Instead, they selected Philip VI instead. This was the basis for the conflict… • There was no treaty ending the war, both sides just stopped fighting. England won most battles, but the French also won key victories thanks to Joan of Arc. • Outcome of war: England’s Parliament was strengthened, England losing it’s French landholdings (except Calais) allowed for England to develop into a nation-state. • AP Tip: MC questions rarely ask about specific battles in a war. War related questions typically focus on causes and consequences.
Economy • 1300-1450, Wetter and colder climates severely reduced agricultural output. Resulted in a famine and susceptibility to diseases. (called “the little ice age”) • Black Death: first reported in Europe in 1347, killed many of the skilled craftsmen. The plague resulted in new men entering the craft guilds. • Hundred Years’ War devastated France’s land and disrupted trade, peasants paid high taxes to cover the cost of war, the war was also very costly for England • These economic problems led to the end of serfdom in Western Europe- landlords switched to cash rents and payments. • AP Tip: religion was part of trade because people would often pilgrimage to religious cities and conduct trade along the way. There is usually a question tied to this on the AP exam.
Religion • People believed that Plague was a punishment from God • Babylonian Captivity: papacy moved to Avignon, France in 1309 and for 76 years. This hurt the prestige of the church. • Papacy returned to Rome in 1377, but political disputes divided Christian Europe even further, resulting in the election of another pope (hence the schism…the two popes were later deposed and a third pope elected. Schism ends in 1417 with the selection of a new pope at the Council of Constance
Society and Culture • The Plague had the greatest impact on every aspect of society in the 14th century. Plague killed 1/3 of Europe and 60% of population in cities like Florence. Cities were crowded and filthy and filled with disease carrying rats. Medical science was primitive. Wealthy people fled cities, but were not untouched by disease. • Clergy cared for the sick and were killed by plague • Plague loosened social class structures and allowed for social mobility • Economic hardship and the plague increased ethnic group tensions- people were fearful of outsiders migrating to cities (violence against Jews, etc.) • Peasants rebelled over high taxes and poor quality of life: Flanders, France, England • Men and women married later in their 20s so they could establish themselves economically. Cities established legalized prostitution (brothels) to deal with the unmarried men problem. • Some nobles became bandits and engaged in “fur collar crimes”- the demand of protection money from their peasants because the nobles were suffering from inflation and reduced income.
Ideas and Literature • New colleges and universities were formed across Europe- increase in literacy • The power of the church is starting to be challenged by intellectuals (William of Occam, Marsiglio of Padua, John Wyclif, Jan Hus) • 14th century saw a growth in vernacular literature (language of the people). Two great masterpieces dominate the era: Dante’s Divine Comedy and Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales
Arts • Most art of the ear dealt with the impact of the plague (The Dance of Death- look this up!)
Chapter 13European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350-1550 • Areas of focus: England, France, Italy and Spain • Main events: the Renaissance, nation-state development in France and England
Politics • Italian peninsula was divided into numerous city-states rued by the elite, but ultimately governed by the Holy Roman Emperor • The Medici banking family of Florence came to dominate along with the Borgias and Sforzas of Milan • The city-states were constantly at war with one another • In France, Charles VII and Louis XI strengthened the royal treasury with new taxes on salt and land and brought in new territories through marriages, war and inheritance • In England, in fighting occurred through the War of the Roses (1455-1471), a war of dynastic succession (Lancasters vs. Yorks---Part of Plantagenet family). Henry Tudor, a Lancaster, prevailed. • Spain became a territorially unified state as a result of the Reconquista- expulsion of the Muslims from Grenada in 1492 by Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon. • AP Tip: advances in military technology like the longbow allowed common men to weird weapons- not just the knights. This basically put noblemen out of work as knights.
Economy • Northern Italian city-states dominated in trade and investment. This provided a great deal of disposable income and is part of the reason why families like the Medici's could patron the arts during the Renaissance. • These city-states developed high quality manufacturing like silk and wool • Leaders of the trade guilds also benefited from the system and had disposable income.
Religion • France and Spain developed national churches under the leadership of the king by the early 16th century (Concordat of Bologna in France under Francis I). This authority made it easier for these countries to resist Protestantism later on. • Uniformity of religion was a primary goal in Spain and helped make the expulsion of Jews and Muslims possible during the Reconquista. The Spanish Inquisition was developed to determine who the actual Christian converts were and if their conversion was true.
Society and Culture • By the end of the 14th century, discussions over the role of women in society was widely discussed. Rulers like Elizabeth I and Isabella of Castile challenged gender stereotypes. • Gutenberg’s printing press- mid-15th century, transformed the lives of everyone. Increased the amount of printed materials in circulation. Governments and churches feared this printing revolution and censored books. • 15th century also saw the influx of slavery in the port cities of Europe. There were some free-blacks that arrived and worked in Western Europe
Ideas and Literature • Renaissance: The rebirth of the classics and focus on humanism • Renaissance ideas were present in the written works of the time period.
Arts • The visual arts are the most noted achievement of the Renaissance (painting, sculpting, architecture) • Florence is seen as the birthplace to the Ren. movement • Early Ren. artists include Masaccio (Holy Trinity) which is the first painting to show linear perspective • Isms…. Classicalism, individualism, rationalism, secularism, realism, humanism • Ren will spread to the rest of Europe (Northern Ren) • Artists were seen as intellectuals- elevated status • Landscape and portraiture were two new forms of painting during the Ren.
Chapter 14Reformations and Religious Wars1500-1600 • Areas of focus: Germanic states, England, France, Switzerland, the Netherlands • Main events: the Reformation, the development of Lutheranism, Calvinism, and other forms of Protestantism; religious violence.
Politics • In every country in western and central Europe, politics and religion intersected • Protestantism in