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Review Session Art 101 Mid-term Exam Fall 2003 Things to review Important concepts Review of various media Artwork highlights from each period PART ONE Important Concepts Possible T/F, matching, essay questions Know the basic idea and be able to recognize it in a work of art

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review session

Review Session

Art 101

Mid-term Exam

Fall 2003

things to review
Things to review
  • Important concepts
  • Review of various media
  • Artwork highlights from each period
part one important concepts
PART ONEImportant Concepts
  • Possible T/F, matching, essay questions
  • Know the basic idea and be able to recognize it in a work of art
the divine ruler
The “Divine Ruler”
  • The king, emperor, or other political leader is set up as something more than mortal.
    • They are given their office my divine intervention (deity’s representation on earth)

or

    • They are the physical embodiment of the deity itself
divine ruler
Divine Ruler

Palette of King Narmer - Egyptian

Augustus of Primaporta - Roman

abstract vs representational art
Abstract vs. Representational Art
  • Representational - art intended to realistically depict something from life (or, something real)
  • Abstract - an image created by taking something from, or abstracting, an life-like object
    • Even a photograph is “abstract” since it takes a three-dimensional object and forces it into only two dimensions
slide7

Representational image

(Egypto-Roman portrait painting)

Abstracted forms

(Cycladic statuette)

the law of frontality
The “Law” of Frontality
  • The idea that in order to depict a person completely, you had to include as much of that person in the image as possible.
  • Usually reserved for royalty, but not always
  • The figures are intentionally abstracted

Book of the Dead (detail) - Egyptian

Palette of King Narmer

Egyptian

foreshortening
Foreshortening
  • As opposed to the flat, frontal style of some works
  • Where the body is depicted more naturally, where objects get smaller as they get further away, forms overlap, etc.
foreshortening10
Foreshortening

NO

YES

Etruscan Tomb Fresco (detail)

Frontality

Roman Mythological Fresco

contrapposto
Contrapposto
  • Italian for “counterpoise”
  • The nonsymmetrical figure is at rest, but ready for action - “the pose of potential motion”
  • Weight resting on one leg
contrapposto12
Contrapposto

Hermes and Infant Bacchus

by sculptor Praxiteles

(Greek)

Knidos Aphrodite

also by Praxiteles

pathos
Pathos
  • An emotional element in the work of art
  • Subject is designed to elicit an emotional response from the viewer
  • Dignified suffering

Dying Gaul - Greek

Dying Nyobid - Greek

characteristics of the classical style
Characteristics of the “Classical” Style
  • In sculpture/painting/etc.
    • Drapery, usually in form of toga-type clothing
    • Pathos
    • The search for the “ideal” beauty
  • In architecture
    • Columns
    • Pediment
    • The post and lintel system
classical artwork
Classical Artwork

Three Goddesses from the Parthenon pediment

Greek

Nike of Samothrace - Greek

classical architecture
Classical Architecture

Parthenon - on the Athens acropolis - Greek

form and content
Form and Content
  • The best works of ART will include both:
    • Mastery of form - an image showing the artist’ master over the MEDIA they choose to use.
    • Content, or Meaning - the work will have some message or idea expressed beyond being just a picture

Portrait Bust of Queen Nefertete

Egyptian

Nike of Samothrace

Greek

composition
Composition
  • The purposeful arrangement of objects, shapes on the picture plane
    • The arrangement depends on the content of the work (it’s purpose) and the way the artist wants the viewer to look at the image.
      • The area of primary importance
      • The direction of the motion of the eye

Roman mosaic copy of Greek painting - Alexander the Great defeating the Persian army

canon
Canon
  • A formula that was supposed to create the perfect human form
  • Based on mathematical principles governing proportion
  • Reflects the belief in “absolute beauty”

Myron’s Discobulus

Greek

Praxiteles’ Aphrodite

Egyptian

illustration
Illustration
  • An art object that accompanies a story - brings the message alive using pictures or sculptures (the work is “illustrative”)

Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii fresco

(Roman)

Herakles Wrestling Lion

(Greek black-figure pot)

slide21
Arch
  • The architectural form pioneered by the Etruscans and adopted by the Romans. The Romans used it extensively and it, combined with the barrel vault, allowed them to build extremely large concrete structures.
barrel vault
Barrel Vault
  • An architectural space created by a long row of arches. Allowed the Romans to create very large indoor spaces. Used for bath houses and other civic structures.
aesthetics
Aesthetics
  • The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty.
ziggurat
Ziggurat
  • Mesopotamian tower structure
  • The tower of Babel in Genesis 11 is an example.
basilica

Apse

Colonnade

Nave

Aisle

Aisle

Atrium

Narthex

Basilica
  • The architectural design created by the Romans for large public spaces. Adopted by the Christians after Constantine for church buildings.
vellum
Vellum
  • Bleached animal skin. Developed by the Greeks as the “paper” for books. Illuminated manuscripts are commonly made out of vellum.
animal style
“Animal Style”
  • Early medieval, decorative style of carving usually found on the personal gear of barbarians/nomads. Carved into complex animal shapes.
romanesque
Romanesque
  • the term applied to art produced at the end the “dark ages.” Derived from the roman-like arches and columns used in cathedral architecture.
groin vault
Groin Vault
  • the term used to describe the intersection of two barrel vaults.
gothic
Gothic
  • The international style of church architecture that first appeared in France in ±1137 and spread throughout Europe. Most easily identified by the flying buttresses and pointed arches that allow extremely high ceilings and lots of windows/light.
flying buttresses
Flying Buttresses
  • Arches connected to the exterior of a Gothic cathedral that support the weight of the high ceiling, taking away the need for thick, brick walls. Allows for numerous, large, stained glass windows.
tympaneum
Tympaneum
  • The semi-circular area above the main entrance to a Romanesque or Gothic cathedral. A common location for large-scale low- and high-relief sculpture.
part two media review
PART TWOMedia Review
  • Relief vs. in-the-round
  • Marble
  • Terracotta
  • Bronze
  • Tempera
  • Black/Red figure (Greek pottery)
  • Fresco
  • Encaustic
  • Mosaic
relief vs in the round

High Relief

High Relief

Relief vs. in-the-round

Low Relief

Gods vs. Giants

Siphnian Treasury, Greek

Free-

Standing

(in the round)

Free-

Standing

(in the round)

Prince Rahotep and Nofrete

Egyptian

Kore (female figure) - Archaic Greek

marble

Terracotta (clay)

Marble

Octavius depicted as Mercury (Roman)

Apollo, from Veii (Etruscan)

bronze
Bronze

Charioteer - Greek

Poseidon (or Zeus?) - Greek

fresco
Fresco

Pigment applied directly to wet plaster to dry in place

“Garden” fresco on wall of apartment - Roman

fresco39

Encaustic

Fresco

Painted in molten wax - very durable

Pigment applied directly to wet plaster to dry in place

“Garden” fresco on wall of apartment - Roman

Egypto-Roman portrait painting

mosaic
Mosaic
  • An image composed of tiny pieces of colored stone (Roman) and later glass (Byzantines). When viewed from a distance, the bits of color mix to form an image.
part three highlights from each period
PART THREEHighlights from Each Period

See the Website:

http://frida.blc.edu/~andyo/classes/ar101/ar101.html