chapter 13 2 states of matter the nature of liquids n.
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Chapter 13.2 States of Matter, The nature of liquids. The particles in a liquid have an attraction for each other. The kinetic energy in them cannot overcome this attraction. Volume.

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chapter 13 2 states of matter the nature of liquids
Chapter 13.2 States of Matter, The nature of liquids
  • The particles in a liquid have an attraction for each other. The kinetic energy in them cannot overcome this attraction
volume
Volume
  • The particles of a liquid or solid are touching. It is basically impossible to compress them very much (Don’t bring up that Black Hole and neutron star stuff, this is chemistry, not physics)
what is the difference between liquids and gases
What is the difference between liquids and gases?
  • Theoretically, there are no attractions between particles in a gas, but there are in a liquid.
  • What are these attractions called?
slide4

Van der Waals forces or

  • Intra molecular forces
  • London dispersion, for instance
evaporation
Evaporation
  • Molecules with enough kinetic energy can escape the liquid’s surface. Since they have more energy than the ones left behind, it would tend to cool the liquid.
vapor pressure
Vapor Pressure
  • Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a gas above a liquid in a sealed container.
  • More heat = more vapor pressure
  • Past boiling point is more vapor pressure
  • Measured by a manometer (see illustration p 393 in book)
boiling point
Boiling point
  • When the particles throughout the liquid have enough energy to become vapor
  • Or
  • The temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure
boiling point and pressure
Boiling point and pressure
  • Since the boiling point is when the vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure if there is less external pressure, the boiling point is lower (such as when you are high in the mountains)