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  1. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNL Breakout Group Reports May 15, 2007

  2. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 1:Catalysis and Metabolic Engineering Leader(s): Patrick Dussault, Don Weeks Coordinator: Sara Trickie May 15, 2007

  3. Group 1: Biocatalysis/metabolic engineering • Metabolic Engineering • Better understanding of plant or microbe metabolic pathways and pathway manipulation • Use Nebraska commodities (soybeans, corn, wheat) for high value/high energy products – “translational genomics” May 15, 2007

  4. Group 1: Biocatalysis/metabolic engineering • Metabolic Engineering • Use of algae as high oil organism that has great potential for genetic manipulation • Find a person that can interact productively with existing researchers at UNL to develop practical applications May 15, 2007

  5. Group 1: Biocatalysis/metabolic engineering • Metabolic Engineering • Perhaps bring in a biochemist/ metabolic engineer to work on corn, given the major boost in corn production and corn by-products that will result from ethanol production May 15, 2007

  6. Group 1: Biocatalysis/metabolic engineering • Metabolic Engineering • Summary: Focus on better understanding carbon flow in plants and, ultimately, apply this for practical purposes. May 15, 2007

  7. Group 1: Biocatalysis/metabolic engineering • Catalysis • Likely inorganic catalysis, but opportunities also in enzyme-based catalysis • Opportunities : • Conversions of emerging feedstocks • Catalytic upgrading of ethanol • Liquid phase chemistry equivalent to classic gas-phase catalysis (for example, cracking) May 15, 2007

  8. Group 1: Biocatalysis/metabolic engineering • Catalysis • Theme: • High-volume biofuel production should optimally be accompanied by high-value co-product chemistry. • Needed Facilities • High through-put screening • Metabolomics • Combichem - ? May 15, 2007

  9. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 2:Integrated Biorefinery Systems Leader(s): Milford Hanna, David Jackson Coordinator: John Hay May 15, 2007

  10. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 2:Integrated Biorefinery Systems Leader(s): Milford Hanna, David Jackson Coordinator: John Hay May 15, 2007

  11. Group 2: Integrated Biorefinery Systems Proposed Focus Areas: Primary emphasis on corn based ethanol and integrated technologies including • Fractionation • Gasification • Biodiesel production • Co-products of biofuel production • Expand range of uses • Biorefinery Course • Undergraduate/Graduate • Understanding the Nutrient Flow through the corn ethanol production system including • Feedstocks • Co-product fractions May 15, 2007

  12. Group 2: Integrated Biorefinery Systems • Funding sources? • First, we need to develop a compelling vision • Faculty positions and expertise needed? • Other needed resources and infrastructure? • Compile existing capabilities May 15, 2007

  13. Group 2: Integrated Biorefinery Systems • Group will meet again to discuss a vision of integrated biorefinery research at UNL May 15, 2007

  14. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 3:Carbon Sequestration, Climate Change & Sustainability of Biofuel Systems Leader(s): Shashi Verma Coordinator: Tisha Mullen May 15, 2007

  15. Carbon Sequestration, Climate Change&Sustainability of Biofuel Systems May 15, 2007 Energy Science Retreat_May 15, 2007

  16. Potential Effects: Global Climate Patterns Functioning of Terrestrial Ecosystems Mitigation Options: Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Remove Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere – Increase Carbon Stored in the Soil (“Carbon Sequestration”) Use of Biofuels Atmospheric CO2 Concentration at Mauna Loa Observatory May 15, 2007

  17. CARBON SEQUESTRATION, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOFUEL SYSTEMSDiscussion TopicsOverall Goal:Create environmentally friendly, sustainable, and economically viable biofuels systems that support our needs for food, feed, and fuel. Objectives: • Develop fundamental quantitative understanding of carbon, energy, nutrient, and water cycles in major biofuel systems to achieve long-term environmental and economic sustainability. • Use a combination of small-scale plots and production-scale facilities in an integrated, holistic approach to obtain relevant data on how biofuel cropping systems, livestock feeding operations, and bio-processing facilities influence food and feedstock supply and environmental impact. May 15, 2007

  18. CARBON SEQUESTRATION, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOFUEL SYSTEMSDiscussion TopicsOverall Goal:Create environmentally friendly, sustainable, and economically viable biofuels systems that support our needs for food, feed, and fuel. Objectives (cont.): • Accurately quantify the amounts of net carbon sequestered and trading value in a variety of major biofuel cropping systems. Conduct full carbon cost accounting (including all greenhouse gas emissions) and determine the net global warming potential. • Management and use of co-products in a cost-effective manner that protects soil, air, and water quality. Reduce environmental challenges related to biofuels co-products use by grazing and confined livestock. Compare water and energy use with and without co-products as well as mitigate N, P, and other nutrient challenges. May 15, 2007

  19. Site 3 Rainfed Maize – Soybean Site 2 Irrigated Maize – Soybean Site 1 Irrigated Continuous Maize Carbon Sequestration Research Facility at the UNL Agricultural Research and Development Center, Mead May 15, 2007

  20. Carbon Sequestration Program Co-Principal Investigators Shashi B. Verma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . School of Natural Resources Kenneth G. Cassman. . . . . . . . . . . Agronomy and Horticulture Co-Investigators Timothy J. Arkebauer. . . . . . . . . . . Agronomy and Horticulture Achim Dobermann. . . . . . . . . . . . . Agronomy and Horticulture Anatoly A. Gitelson . . . . . . . . . . . School of Natural Resources Kenneth G. Hubbard . . . . . . . . . . School of Natural Resources Johannes M. Knops. . . . . . . . . . . School or Biological Sciences Gary D. Lynne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agricultural Economics Derrel L. Martin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biological Systems Engineering Donald C. Rundquist. . . . . . . . . . . School of Natural Resources Madhavan Soundararajan. . . . . . . Biochemistry Andrew E. Suyker . . . . . . . . . . . . . School of Natural Resources Elizabeth A. Walter-Shea . . . . . . . School of Natural Resources Daniel T. Walters . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agronomy and Horticulture Haishun Yang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agronomy and Horticulture May 15, 2007

  21. Carbon Cycle and Biofuel Energy Research Activities: Agronomy and Horticulture • Soil carbon sequestration: Cassman, Dobermann, Yang, Arkebauer and Walters • Ecology of perennial grassland systems: Schacht and Arkebauer • Perennial crop management and carbon budgets - cellulosic biomass: Schacht • Soil organic matter dynamics and modeling: Yang, Cassman, Walters, Drijber and Wortmann • Greenhouse trace gas emissions from agricultural systems: Dobermann, Drijber and Arkebauer • Full C cost accounting of biofuel systems: Walters, Yang, Liska and Cassman • Biofuel energy systems simulation: Liska, Cassman, Yang and Walters • Transformation and breeding of oil, starch and sugar energy crops: Clemente and Dweikat May 15, 2007

  22. Carbon Cycle and Biofuel Energy Research Activities: USDA – ARS, Lincoln, NE • Soil carbon sequestration: Varvel and Wienhold • REAP (Renewable Energy Assessment Project) -Development of sustainable residue removal management practices: Wilhelm, Varvel and Vogel • Cellulosic biomass harvest technologies: Wilhelm and Varvel • Soil organic matter dynamics and soil quality under cellulosic biomass removal: Wienhold, Wilhelm and Varvel • Energy balance and net energy yield using switchgrass as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production: Vogel, Wilhelm and Varvel • Switchgrass breeding for enhanced conversion efficiency and climate adaptation: Vogel, Pedersen and Sarath May 15, 2007

  23. Biofuels Feed Byproducts Research Activities Animal Science Department Beef Cattle • Evaluation of different byproduct types. • Evaluation of ratio of distillers grains to distillers solubles for growing and finishing cattle. • Methods to feed greater amounts (greater than 50%). • Impact of feeding byproducts on environmental challenges. • Use of byproducts in forage situations. • Optimizing other dietary ingredients (grain type, forages, etc.) in combination with byproducts. • Methods of storage of wet byproducts for smaller producers and ranchers. • Economic impacts of utilizing byproducts. Dairy Cattle • Evaluation of different byproduct types. • Optimizing other dietary ingredients in dairy rations containing byproducts. • Evaluation of methods to increase inclusion and impact on milk quality. May 15, 2007

  24. Carbon Cycle Research ActivitiesSchool of Natural Resources • Tower eddy covariance fluxes of CO2, water vapor and energy: Verma and Suyker • Monitoring soil water: Hubbard • Remote sensing of CO2 fluxes, leaf area index and green leaf biomass: Gitelson and Walter-Shea • Sandhills biocomplexity project – aboveground plant productivity, root biomass and soil C stores: Wedin • Carbon sequestration in agroforestry: Brandle May 15, 2007

  25. Carbon Cycle Research ActivitiesSchool of Biological Sciences • Litter decomposition in maize-based cropping systems: Knops • Prairie succession - quantify vegetation change, productivity and soil C and N accumulation: Knops • Elevated CO2, increased N deposition and plant diversity in prairies - quantify the impact of global change on the productivity, decomposition and soil C and N: Knops Department of Biochemistry • Using carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry to separate the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration: Soundararajan May 15, 2007

  26. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 4:21st Century Power Generating Systems Leader(s): Jerry Hudgins Coordinator: Nathan Meier May 15, 2007

  27. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 4:21st Century Power Generating Systems Leader(s): Jerry Hudgins Coordinator: Nathan Meier May 15, 2007

  28. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • Electric power production and transportation power are the top demands for future energy. • Focus: efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, provide stable and secure grid & meet demand distributed supply demand • Storage issues May 15, 2007

  29. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • Our power generating systems are impeded by policy. • Many technologies are sufficiently developed that could improve generation systems if policy (e.g., federal, state) shifted. May 15, 2007

  30. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • We expect distributed systems to come to fruition. • These distributed system architectures could be grid connected (e.g., local area networks) or stand alone. May 15, 2007

  31. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • A number of technical hurdles impede improvements to power generation capabilities. These include: • Storage • Combustion May 15, 2007

  32. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • Storage • Hydrogen • Bonding (attachment and detachment) • Nano materials • Hydrogen storage • Batteries May 15, 2007

  33. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • Combustion • Kinetics of ethanol and other hydrocarbons May 15, 2007

  34. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • Reformers (fuel cells) utilizing fuels such as ethanol and methanol • Microbial fuel cells May 15, 2007

  35. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • Co-generation plants to improve efficiency • Heat for associated chemical and biological plant operation • Informal science (public) education programs May 15, 2007

  36. Group 4: 21st Century Power Generating Systems • Gaps in current expertise: • Nuclear chemistry • Electrochemistry • Cooperation between university and industry to affect appropriate policy changes. May 15, 2007

  37. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 5:Energy EfficientArchitecture & Environmental Control Systems Leader(s): Wayne Drummond, Bing Chen Coordinator: Marla Rohrke May 15, 2007

  38. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 5:Energy EfficientArchitecture & Environmental Control Systems Leader(s): Wayne Drummond, Bing Chen Coordinator: Marla Rohrke May 15, 2007

  39. Group 5: Architecture & Control Systems • Conservation as “new energy” • Bring together faculty expertise in appropriate disciplines – Such as Architecture, Engineering, Computer Science, Social Studies, Physics • Create a coordinated and nationally recognized program May 15, 2007

  40. Group 5: Architecture & Control Systems • Universal Building Energy Observatory • Conservation • Beyond Green. Don’t repeat mistakes of the 70s and 80s. Prius – “cool” • Link energy efficiency and profitability • Improve efficiency and change behavior • Strong education and student involvement components (University Academy) May 15, 2007

  41. Group 5: Architecture & Control Systems • Bring group together • Email communication • Initial list of topics for discussion • First step project – Universal House Demonstration • Site-specific and mobile related to education • Material and sensory technologies May 15, 2007

  42. Group 5: Architecture & Control Systems • Funding – DOE, USDA, EPA, ASHRAE,NSF, DOD, DOC, CA Energy Commission, FIPSE, NEO, NE Home Builders Association • Congressional delegation, legislature • Partnerships with industries, NIFA, AIA, NPPD,OPPD • Other needed resources and infrastructure to be identified May 15, 2007

  43. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 6:Energy Sciences Minor Leader: Ron Yoder Coordinator: Liz Banset May 15, 2007

  44. Group 6: Energy Sciences Minor • Intended for students in all disciplines, including arts and humanities • Get students excited enough to encourage them to take the requisite science courses • Provide minor for students whose interest is piqued by need to develop alternative energy sources or by need to manage energy resources • Learn about role & function of energy in society; environmental challenges • Attract students majoring in non-science, science and engineering disciplines through all Colleges that choose to participate. May 15, 2007

  45. Group 6: Energy Sciences Minor • Requires 18 hours : • Introductory core courses (9 hours) • Higher-level, discipline-oriented electives (9 hours) • “Enrichment” courses (up to 3 hours) May 15, 2007

  46. Energy Science Minor Three 1-unit “enrichment” courses Nebraska Energy Tour (1), optional Energy Seminar (1), required Independent Energy Study (1), optional Core Curriculum (9) Electives (9) *Student chooses three courses (all are 3 credit-hour) from one, or more, of these lists Credit hours shown in parentheses May 15, 2007

  47. Group 6: Energy Sciences Minor • Funding sources? • NSF, Dept of Energy, Dept of Ed • Faculty positions and expertise needed? • No new positions; create three basic courses; identify existing courses and develop some new ones to include as electives • Other needed resources and infrastructure? • Marketing strategy • Possible scholarships May 15, 2007

  48. Group 6: Energy Sciences Minor • Timetable: • First course offered Fall 2008 • Workshop to be held in August 2007 May 15, 2007

  49. Group 6: Energy Sciences Minor • University-wide minor • Learn about role & function of energy in society; environmental challenges • Attract students majoring in non-science, science and engineering disciplines through all Colleges that choose to participate. May 15, 2007

  50. A Vision for Energy Sciences at UNLBreakout Group Reports Group 7:Opportunities in Other Areas Leader: Sandra Scofield Coordinator: Ann Selzer May 15, 2007