Supply and Demand. Demand Defined. What is Demand? Demand is the different quantities of goods that consumers are willing and able to buy at different prices. (EX: Bill Gates is able to purchase a Ferrari, but if he isn’t willing he has NO demand for one. What is the Law of Demand?
Demand Defined What is Demand? Demand is the different quantities of goods that consumers are willing and able to buy at different prices. (EX: Bill Gates is able to purchase a Ferrari, but if he isn’t willing he has NO demand for one. What is the Law of Demand? There is an INVERSE relationship between price and quantity demanded.
LAW OF DEMAND As Price Falls… …Quantity Demanded Rises As Price Rises… …Quantity Demanded Falls Quantity Demanded Price
GRAPHING DEMAND Demand Schedule Price of Cereal $5 4 3 2 1 Demand o Q 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Quantity of Cereal 4
What Causes change in Demand? 5 Shifters (Determinates) of Demand: Tastes and Preferences Number of Consumers Price of Related Goods (Substitutes/Complements) Income (Normal Goods vs. Inferior Goods) Future Expectations Changes in PRICE don’t shift the curve. It only causes movement along the curve.
2. Inferior Goods As income increases, demand falls As income falls, demand increases Ex: Top Ramen, used cars, used clothes, Normal Goods As income increases, demand increases As income falls, demand falls Ex: Luxury cars, Sea Food, jewelry, homes Income The incomes of consumer change the demand, but how depends on the type of good.
Practice Hamburgers (a normal good) Population boom Incomes fall due to recession Price for Carne Asada burritos falls to $1 Price increases to $5 for hamburgers New health craze- “No ground beef” Hamburger restaurants announce that they will significantly increase prices NEXT month Government heavily taxes shake and fries causes their prices to quadruple. Restaurants lower price of burgers to $.50 First identify the determinant (Shifter). Then decide if demand will increase or decrease 7
Supply Defined What is supply? Supply is the different quantities of a good that sellers are willing and able to sell (produce) at different prices. What is the Law of Supply? There is a DIRECT (positive) relationship between price and quantity supplied. As price increases, the quantity producers make increases As price falls, the quantity producers make falls. Why? Because, at higher prices profit seeking firms have an incentive to produce more.
Example of Supply You own an lawn mower and you are willing to mow lawns. How many lawns will you mow at these prices? Supply Schedule $1 $5 $20 $50 $100 $1000 9
GRAPHING SUPPLY Supply Schedule Price of Cereal Supply $5 4 3 2 1 o Q 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Quantity of Cereal 10
6 Shifters (Determinants) of Supply Prices/Availability of inputs (resources) Number of Sellers (people in the business) Technology Government Action: Taxes & Subsidies Opportunity Cost of Other Options Expectations of Future Profit Changes in PRICE don’t shift the curve. It only causes movement along the curve.
Hamburgers Mad cow disease kills 20% of cows Price of hamburgers increase 30% Government taxes burger producers Restaurants can produce burgers and/or tacos. A demand increase causes the price for tacos to increase 500% New bun baking technology cuts production time in half Minimum wage increases to $20 Supply Practice Which determinant (SHIFTER)? Increase or decrease? Which direction will curve shift?
Supply and Demand are put together to determine equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity P Supply Schedule Demand Schedule S $5 4 3 2 1 D o Q 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 13