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Disability & the Majority World: Towards a Global Disability Studies Manchester, 7-8 July 2011. Debating ‘inclusion’: learning from development and poverty scholarship. Nina Marshall PhD candidate, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies, University of Bristol

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debating inclusion learning from development and poverty scholarship

Disability & the Majority World: Towards a Global Disability Studies

Manchester, 7-8 July 2011

Debating ‘inclusion’: learning from development and poverty scholarship

Nina Marshall

PhD candidate, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies, University of Bristol

nina.marshall@bristol.ac.uk

the rise and rise of inclusive development
The rise and rise of ‘inclusive development’
  • Increasingly hegemonic assertions of ‘inclusive development’ in policy, research and practice arenas (c.f. Barron & Amerena 2007; Lord et al 2010)
  • Background of lack of cross-over between disability studies & development scholarship (c.f. Grech 2009; Yeo & Moore 2003)
  • ‘Inclusion’ has particular meanings for disability activists and scholars but also has a history within development research and practice
  • Cannot assume ‘inclusion’ is a positive for disabled people or accept it as a concept that needs no challenge (c.f. McRuer 2007; Dingo 2007; Power 2001)
  • To understand how ‘inclusive development’ has come about and consider its potential effects , suggested we can explore the genealogy of in/ exclusion within the development and poverty literature and see what connections can be made
overview
Overview
  • The history of social in/exclusion in development debates
    • Historical origins
    • Conceptualisation and definition
    • Linking to development debates
  • Debating social in/exclusion in development
    • Value added?
    • Adverse incorporation and social exclusion
  • Implications for and connections to ‘inclusive development’
    • Conceptual baggage
    • Transformative potential
    • Avenues for critical reflection
bringing social in exclusion into development
Bringing social in/exclusion into development
  • Social exclusion’s European conceptual origins
  • Silver’s (1994) three paradigms:
      • Solidarity paradigm
      • Specialisation paradigm
      • Monopoly paradigm
  • Common definitional characteristics (de Haan, 1998)
      • Exclusion as opposite to social integration
      • Multi-dimensionality
      • Exclusion as a state or situation but frequently process, with focus on role of institutions
  • Linking social in/exclusion to development
      • to poverty
      • to social justice
      • to capabilities approach (e.g. Sen 2000)
debating social in exclusion s utility
Debating social in/exclusion’s utility

What does it add?

  • Focus on (institutional) processes not individual attributes (Kabeer 2000)
  • Widening the issue areas considered in comparison with poverty: widening concerns, broadening explanations, focusing on multi-dimensionality, historicising and politicising poverty (Hickey & du Toit 2007)
  • Promoting self-reflexivity in the policy domain (Kabeer 2000)

BUT critiqued for

  • Exportation without critique – relevance in the global South?
  • Whether it challenges the mainstream policy agenda (Clert 1999): is it an affirmative or a transformative remedy? (Kabeer 2000)
  • Potential to categorise into ‘the included’ and ‘the excluded’ without differentiation or acknowledging agency (Porter 2000)
  • Underlying ‘moral meta-narrative’ (Hickey and du Toit 2007)

Adverse incorporation: a more appropriate concept?

(e.g. du Toit 2004; Hickey and du Toit 2007)

implications for inclusive development
Implications for ‘inclusive development’
  • Within the development world, ‘inclusion’ is conceptually associated with particular paradigms of development: development actors come to the idea of ‘inclusive development’ with conceptual baggage.
  • ‘In/exclusion’ may positively shift focus onto the institutional processes which exclude disabled people and produce them as a vulnerable, impoverished and marginalised group.
  • The diversity and vagueness of conceptualisations of in/exclusion may dilute its transformative potential and allow a dichotomous perception that focuses only on the excluded.
  • ‘Inclusive development’ presents both opportunities and constraints for disabled people in the global South: the tension between these requires recognition and exploration (c.f. Simon-Kumar and Kingfisher 2011).
reversing the q a hierarchy over to you
Reversing the Q&A hierarchy: over to you…
  • In what ways do you think ‘inclusion’ as conceptualised within disability studies differs from how in/exclusion is conceptualised in development studies?
  • What might we gain from the development studies debates when considering the issue of ‘inclusive development’?
  • In what ways might a disability perspective add to the theorisation of in/exclusion within development studies?
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Barron, T. and P. Amerena, P, (eds) (2007) Disability and Inclusive Development, London: Leonard Cheshire International.
  • Clert, C. (1999) ‘Evaluating the concept of social exclusion in development discourse’, The European Journal of Development Research 11 (2): 176-199
  • Dingo, R. (2007) 'Making the 'Unfit, Fit': The Rhetoric of Mainstreaming in the World Bank's Commitment to Gender Equality and Disability Rights', Wagadu, 4 (Summer 2007): 93-107.
  • Grech, S. (2009) 'Disability, poverty and development: critical reflections on the majority world debate', Disability & Society, 24 (6): 771-784.
  • de Haan, A. (1998) ‘’Social Exclusion’: An alternative concept for the study of deprivation?’, IDS Bulletin 29 (1): 10-19
  • de Haan, A. and Maxwell, S. (1998) ‘Poverty and Social Exclusion in North and South’, IDS Bulletin 29 (1): 1-9.
bibliography cont
Bibliography (cont.)
  • Hickey, S. and du Toit, A. (2007) ‘Adverse incorporation, social exclusion and chronic poverty’, Chronic Poverty Working Paper 81
  • Kabeer, N. (2000) ‘Social exclusion, poverty and discrimination: towards an analytical framework’, IDS Bulletin 31 (4): 83-97
  • Lord, J., Posarac, A., Nicoli, M., Peffley, K., McClain-Nhlapo, C. and Keogh, M. (2010) Disability and International Cooperation and Development: A Review of Policies and Practices, SP Discussion Paper, No. 1003, Washington D.C.: World Bank.
  • McRuer, R. (2007) 'Taking it to the Bank: Independence and Inclusion on the World Market', Journal of Literary Disability, 1 (2): 5-14.
  • Porter, F. (2000) ‘Social exclusion: what’s in a name?’, Development in Practice 10 (1): 76-81
  • Power, M. (2001) 'Geographies of disability and development in Southern Africa', Disability Studies Quarterly, 21 (4): 84-97.
bibliography cont10
Bibliography (cont.)
  • Sen, A. (2000) ‘Social exclusion: concept, application, and scrutiny’, Social Development Papers No. 1, Asian Development Bank
  • Silver, H. (1994) ‘Social exclusion and social solidarity: three paradigms’, International Labour Review 133(5-6): 531-578
  • Simon-Kumar, R. and Kingfisher, C. (2011) ‘Beyond transformation and regulation: productive tensions and the analytics of inclusion’, Politics and Policy 39 (2): 271-294.
  • Yeo, R. and Moore, K. (2003) 'Including disabled people in poverty reduction work: "Nothing about us', without us"', World Development, 31 (3): 571-590.