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Compact city policies: a comparative assessment applying a new definition of “urban”. TADASHI MATSUMOTO Organisation for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD) Presentation at the RSA European Conference 2012 May 15, 2012, Delft, the Netherlands.

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compact city policies a comparative assessment applying a new definition of urban

Compact city policies:a comparative assessment applying a new definition of “urban”

TADASHI MATSUMOTO

Organisation for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD)

Presentation at the RSA European Conference 2012

May 15, 2012, Delft, the Netherlands

the oecd has developed a new approach to classifying urban areas
The OECD has developed a new approach to classifying urban areas

3 billion and counting of the world’s population live in some form of urban area. But around the world we don’t have the same definitions or understandings of what these urban areas are.

  • The new OECD classification, developed with the European Commission and member countries, identifies urban areas beyond city boundaries, as integrated labour market areas.
  • It is applied to 28 countries and identifies 1 148 urban areas of different size: small urban, medium-sized urban, metropolitan and large metropolitan
  • It allows comparisons among the different forms that urbanisation takes (densely populated centres and their hinterlands, sprawling, polycentric connected cities, etc.)
urban systems in a country comprise cities of different size
Urban systems in a country comprise cities of different size

Korea

Old measurement method:

3 Large metropolitan regions

New measurement method:

45 Functional urban areas of different size

Seoul

Daegu

Busan

slide5
Two-thirds of the OECD population live in urban areas, but the urban experience is very different in each country
  • Around 65% of the urban population in Korea live in large metropolitan areas;
  • In most European countries around 25% of urban population live in medium-sized areas

Percentage of urban population by city size (2008)

slide6

48% of the OECD population live in the 264 urban areas with a population of at least 500 000 (metro area) and these areas account for 53% of OECD GDP

Percentage of population and GDP in metro areas (2008)

the urban population keeps growing particularly in the hinterlands of large metropolitan areas
The urban population keeps growing, particularly in the hinterlands of large metropolitan areas

Population growth 2000-2006 by city type and core/hinterland (average yearly growth rates)

the most dynamic metro areas are driven by different growth models
The most dynamic metro areas are driven by different growth models

moderate population growth and high GDP per capita growth

high population and GDP per capita growth

high population growth and moderate GDP per capita growth

moderate population and GDP per capita growth

Population and GDP per capita growth in the 61 fastest -growing metro areas (with GDP growth 25% higher than the country average GDP growth)

challenges
Challenges
  • Adapt the definition of urban areas to all more countries (data availability)
  • Develop more indicators with the new definition (data availability)
  • Apply to policy analysis (gap between the new definition and unit of policy)
outline of the study
Outline of the study
  • To better understand the compact city concept and the implications of today’s urban contexts
  • To better understand potential outcomes, particularly in terms of Green Growth
  • To develop indicators to monitor compact cities
  • To examine current compact city practices in OECD
  • To propose key compact city strategies
compact city
Compact City?

Not at a city scale, but the metropolitan scale:

key urban trends drivers for compact city
Key urban trends: drivers for compact city
  • Urbanisation and the increasing need to conserve land resources
  • The threat of climate change to cities
  • The rise in energy prices
  • The challenge of sustainable economic growth
  • Demographic trend: declining population, ageing and smaller households in cities
and urban living
…and urban living

Percentage of one-person households

walkability to local service
Walkability to local service

Distance to the nearest medical facilities

urban land cover as an indicator of urban development patterns
Urban land cover as an indicator of urban development patterns

Athens (3.4 million)

Atlanta (4.6 million)

density gradient graph
Density gradient graph

Vancouver (Canada)

Portland (US)

median commute distance
Median commute distance

for selected metropolitan areas in Canada, 1996-2006

policy practices in use
Policy practices in use

Source: OECD compact city survey

key governance strategies
Key governance strategies
  • A vision: region-wide, integrated, long-term
  • Articulate the roles and responsibilities of all key actors and stakeholders in the vision
  • Vertical and horizontal coordination
  • Accountability, transparency and reporting
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Importance of finer definition of “urban areas”, and smarter use of it
  • Policy design and implementation at these metropolitan level - governance is key (vision, data management, finance, etc.)
  • Innovative data collection technique (GIS, remote sensing tools, etc.) helps
find out more
Find out more:

OECD (2012), Redefining urban: a new way to measure metropolitan areas, OECD Publishing.

www.oecd.org/gov/regional/measuringurban

OECD (2012), Compact City Policies: A Comparative Assessment, OECD Green Growth Studies, OECD Publishing.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264167865-en

For more information on OECD work on regional and metropolitan statistics, visit: www.oecd.org/gov/regional/statisticsindicators

For more information on OECD work on urban development, visit: www.oecd.org/gov/urbandevelopment

thank you

Thank you

Tadashi.Matsumoto@oecd.org