the causes of urban primacy in the developing world l.
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The Causes of Urban Primacy In the Developing World. Carolyn Fox and Michael DeLucia. Urban Primacy. Urban primacy indicates a city whose population is at least twice as large as that of the next largest city in a country . Characteristics of Primate Systems.

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Presentation Transcript
urban primacy
Urban Primacy
  • Urban primacy indicates a city whose population is at least twice as large as that of the next largest city in a country
characteristics of primate systems
Characteristics of Primate Systems
  • Associated with urban primacy: income inequality, low levels of economic development, highly centralized administration, colonial status, population growth rate, and ethnic heterogeneity.
  • Associated with balanced urban systems: arable land area, maturity of the urban system, urban population, literacy rates, and the ratio of manufacturing employment to service employment.
urban economies of scale
Urban Economies of Scale
  • Specialization
  • Accumulation and sharing of trade secrets
  • Strong backward and forward linkages
    • To consumer markets
    • To suppliers and production inputs
    • Result: Self Reinforcing Cycle of Urbanization
elasticity of labor supply
Elasticity of Labor Supply
  • High fertility in developing countries 
  • Large rural populations 
  • Large potential industrial labor force.
  • When rural-urban migration increases faster than the changes in relative rural-urban wages, agglomeration and primacy result.
transport costs
Transport Costs
  • Transport costs lessened in primate cities
    • Concentration of domestic demand
    • Public Infrastructure “hub effect”
  • New Firms incentivized to produce in primate city.
  • Transport costs relating to international trade direct the location of primate cities along coastlines and navigable rivers.
government favoritism of primate cities
Government Favoritism of Primate Cities
  • Many primate cities are capital cities:
    • Superior public services
    • Greater infrastructure investment
    • Access to government permitting and licensing
    • Examples: Mexico City, Jakarta, Bangkok, Seoul
  • Link between regime instability and urban primacy
underpriced concentration costs in megacities
Underpriced Concentration Costs in Megacities
  • Health costs, commuting costs, land costs
  • Concentration costs are underpriced in developing countries.
  • Individuals are thus incentivized to migrate to overcrowded cities.
  • Jakarta: no regulation of shallow wells and latrines
the impact of urban primacy
The Impact of Urban Primacy
  • Excessive concentration costs
  • Primate cities absorb resources at the expense of other regions.
  • Policy should be directed toward balanced urban growth.