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UNIT 1/Chapter 2 NOTES. Refresh your memory:. ATOMS. Smallest particles unique to each element Consists of: Protons = Atomic Number Neutrons = Atomic # - Atomic Mass Electrons = Protons. Isotopes. Variant forms of Atoms Atoms that vary in neutron numbers Example: Carbon has 3

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atoms
ATOMS
  • Smallest particles unique to each element
    • Consists of:
      • Protons
        • = Atomic Number
      • Neutrons
        • = Atomic # - Atomic Mass
      • Electrons
        • = Protons
isotopes
Isotopes
  • Variant forms of Atoms
    • Atoms that vary in neutron numbers
      • Example:
        • Carbon has 3
  • Our body’s cells can use any isotope for metabolic activities
  • Radioisotopes
    • Have an unstable nucleus and become more stabilized by spontaneously emitting energy and particles.
radioisotopes and cancer
Radioisotopes and Cancer
  • Are used for PET scans to track abnormal cells and their metabolic activity.
  • Also used in radiation therapy.
chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Hydrogen Bonds
ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds
  • A bond of 2 or more ions that have opposing charges.
  • Example: NaCl
covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • Atoms that share a pair of electrons
    • Can be polar or nonpolar
  • Example: H2, O2, N2
hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen Bonding
  • A weak covalent bond between an electronegative atom and a Hydrogen Atom
  • Example: H20, DNA
properties of h 2 o
Properties of H2O
  • Hydrogen bond in H20 gives it life-sustaining properties.
  • Important part of life:
    • Temperature-stabilizing effects
    • Cohesion
    • Capillary Action
ph scale
pH Scale
  • Acid = 0-6.9
  • Base = 7.1-14
  • Neutral = 7
  • Based on the concentrations of Hydrogen Ions (H+) & Hydroxide Ions (OH-)
  • The greater the H+ concentration, the lower the pH
spicy food anyone
Spicy Food Anyone?
  • How does an antacid work when we eat spicy food and develop an upset stomach?
tonight s homework
Tonight’s Homework
  • The pH of our blood is between 7.3-7.5. If it declines to 7 it can lead to a coma or if there is an increase in pH (to 7.8) it can lead to tetany.What are different factors that can cause a shift (increase or decrease) in pH in our blood?