Chapter 17: Persuasive Speeches - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 17: Persuasive Speeches
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Chapter 17: Persuasive Speeches

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  1. Chapter 17: Persuasive Speeches

  2. Content • Defining Persuasive Speech • Cornerstones of Persuasion • Forms of Reasoning • Toulmin Model • Types of Credibility • Organizing Persuasive Speech • One-sided vs. Two-sided Presentations • Guidelines for Effective Persuasive Speaking

  3. Persuasive Speech • Aims to change others by prompting them to think, feel, believe or act differently.

  4. Characteristics of Persuasive Speech • Involves multiple communicators • Persuasion is not coercion or force • Persuasive impact usually is gradual and incremental

  5. Cornerstones of Persuasion • Forms of proof or reasons people are persuaded • Ethos - perceived personal character of speaker; credibility • Pathos - emotional reasons for attitudes, beliefs or action • Logos - rational or logical proof

  6. Toulmin Model • Toulmin explained that logical reasoning consists of 3 components • Claims - assertions • Grounds - evidence/data that support the claim • Warrant - explains the relevance of the grounds to the claim; justification of grounds

  7. Toulmin Model • Qualifier - word/phrase that limits the scope of the claim • Rebuttal - anticipates and addresses reservations that listeners are likely to have about claims

  8. Credibility • Speaker earns this by convincing listeners that he/she has personal integrity, is positively disposed toward them, and can be trusted • Initial Credibility - before a presentation begins • Derived Credibility - during the speech • Terminal Credibility - end of presentation

  9. Organizing Speeches for Persuasive Impact • Motivated Sequence Pattern • Listener’s attention is drawn to the subject • Establishes need by showing that a real and serious problem exists • Speaker recommends a solution • Visualization - imagine the results • Speakers to the action step - appeal for concrete action

  10. One-sided and Two-sided Presentations • Listener’s expectations • Listener’s attitudes • Listener’s knowledge

  11. Guidelines for Effective Persuasive Speeches • Create common ground with listeners • Adapt to listeners • Avoid fallacious reasoning

  12. Guidelines for Effective Persuasive Speeches • Ad Hominem Arguments - arguments that go to the person instead of the idea • Post Hoc, Ergopropter Hoc - “after this, then this” • Bandwagon Appeal - argues that because people believe/act in a particular way, you should too

  13. Guidelines for Effective Persuasive Speeches • d) Slippery Slope - claims that once we take the 1st step, more and more steps inevitably will follow until some unacceptable consequences results • e) Hasty Generalization - broad claim based on too limited evidence • f) Red Herring Argument - speakers who try to deflect listeners from relevant issues

  14. Guidelines for Effective Persuasive Speeches • g) Either-Or Logic - implying that there are only two options • h) Reliance on the Halo Effect - occurs when we generalize a person’s authority or expertise in a particular area to other areas that are irrelevant to the person’s experience and knowledge