Objective Identify the purpose for blood transfusion. Identify the required assessment before transfusion. List of the preparation before blood transfusion. Describe the procedure of blood transfusion. Identify the termination phase.
Purpose To restore blood volume after sever hemorrhage. To restore oxygen – carrying capacity of the blood. To provide plasma factors, such as AHF factor or factor VIII, or platelet concentrates, with prevent or treat bleeding.
Assessment Assess the following Clinical signs of reaction (e.g, sudden chills, fever, nausea, itching, rash, low back pain, dyspnea). Manifestation of hyper volemia. Status of infusion site. Any unusual symptoms.
Equipment Blood product. Blood Administration set (filter # 10). 250 ml NS for infusion. Venipuncture set containing a # 18 to 20 gauge needle catheter. Alcohol swab. Tape. Clean gloves.
Preparation Prepare the client: Explain the purpose of the procedure. Instruct the client to report any sudden chills, nausea, itching, rash, dyspnea, back pain, or unusual symptoms. Perform venipuncture and start an IV infusion with NS.
Performance Obtain the correct blood component for the client. Check the request and the blood bag . Compare the laboratory blood record with another RN nurse.
Cont… Check for: • Client name • Identification number. • Blood type ( A,B,AB or O) and Rh group. • Blood donor number. • Expiration date of the blood. • Observe blood for abnormal color, gas bubbles and extarneous material.
Nursing Alert Make sure that the blood is left at room temperature for no more than 30 minute before starting the infusion.
Procedure • Perform venipuncture using #18 - #20 canula. • Use the Y set, Prime the Y-set by 250 ml of NS and start infusion using one spike of the Y-set.
Blood Administration • Establish blood transfusion. • Take the vital signs before blood transfusion. • Readjust the flow rate with the main clamp. • Observe client closely for the first 5-10 minutes. • Take the vital signs after the first 10-15 minutes. • Monitor the client. • Document the relevant data.
Termination Terminate the blood transfusion: Stop blood transfusion and clamp the tube. Continue the primary IV solution to flush the maintenance line with NS. Take vital signs after blood transfusion.