Blood Transfusion Manny Ramos RN, MSN
Blood Types • categorized according to antigens on red blood cells • Type A: A antigens • Type B: B antigens • Type O: no antigens (universal donor) • Type AB: A and B antigens (universal recipient) • D antigen, third antigen; may be present on the red blood cells • a. Rh factor positive: D antigen is present • b. Rh factor negative: D antigen is not present
Blood type and crossmatch • Blood type and Rh factor status crossmatched Blood transfusion reactions: • Fever and chills within first 15 minutes • hives and itching during or after transfusion
Hemolytic reaction • most dangerous: ABO incompatibility • RBCs clump and block capillaries • decreased blood flow to vital organs • Manifestations: lumbar, abdominal and/or chest pain, fever, chills, urticaria, nausea and vomiting • Occurs after 100 – 200 ml of incompatible blood infused
Blood transfusion • Assessment of vital signs prior to transfusion • 2 nurses verify correct client and unit of blood are correctly matched • Direct observation of client during first 15 minutes of infusion • Check vital signs according to protocol
Blood transfusion reaction • Stop transfusion immediately • Continue IV infusion with normal saline • Notify physician of client’s signs and symptoms • Provide care for client as indicated • Complete reaction form according to institution protocol. • Obtain urine specimen from client and send for free hemoglobin.