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Blood Transfusion Manny Ramos RN, MSN Blood Types categorized according to antigens on red blood cells Type A: A antigens Type B: B antigens Type O: no antigens (universal donor) Type AB: A and B antigens (universal recipient)

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blood transfusion

Blood Transfusion

Manny Ramos RN, MSN

blood types
Blood Types
  • categorized according to antigens on red blood cells
  • Type A: A antigens
  • Type B: B antigens
  • Type O: no antigens (universal donor)
  • Type AB: A and B antigens (universal recipient)
  • D antigen, third antigen; may be present on the red blood cells
  • a. Rh factor positive: D antigen is present
  • b. Rh factor negative: D antigen is not present
blood type and crossmatch
Blood type and crossmatch
  • Blood type and Rh factor status crossmatched

Blood transfusion reactions:

  • Fever and chills within first 15 minutes
  • hives and itching during or after transfusion
hemolytic reaction
Hemolytic reaction
  • most dangerous: ABO incompatibility
  • RBCs clump and block capillaries
  • decreased blood flow to vital organs
  • Manifestations: lumbar, abdominal and/or chest pain, fever, chills, urticaria, nausea and vomiting
  • Occurs after 100 – 200 ml of incompatible blood infused
blood transfusion5
Blood transfusion
  • Assessment of vital signs prior to transfusion
  • 2 nurses verify correct client and unit of blood are correctly matched
  • Direct observation of client during first 15 minutes of infusion
  • Check vital signs according to protocol
blood transfusion reaction
Blood transfusion reaction
  • Stop transfusion immediately
  • Continue IV infusion with normal saline
  • Notify physician of client’s signs and symptoms
  • Provide care for client as indicated
  • Complete reaction form according to institution protocol.
  • Obtain urine specimen from client and send for free hemoglobin.