Protein synthesis
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Protein Synthesis. One Gene – One Enzyme. Protein Synthesis. Protein Synthesis. Protein Synthesis. Protein Synthesis. Protein Synthesis. Transcription DNA  mRNA Occurs in the nucleus. Translation mRNA  tRNA  AA Occurs at the ribosome. Protein Synthesis. Triplets (Codons).

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Presentation Transcript







Protein synthesis6

Transcription

DNA  mRNA

Occurs in the nucleus

Translation

mRNA  tRNA  AA

Occurs at the ribosome

Protein Synthesis








Initiation
Initiation

  • Promoter

    • TATA Box

    • Initiation Site

  • Transcription factor

  • RNA Polymerase

  • AUG


Elongation
Elongation

  • RNA Polymerase

    • Adds nucleotides to the 3’ end


Termination
Termination

  • Proceeds until RNA polymerase transcribes a terminator sequence

    • UAA

    • UAG

    • UGA


Rna processing
RNA Processing

  • 5’ guanine cap

  • 3” Poly (A) tail


Rna splicing
RNA Splicing

  • Introns

  • Exons


Spliceosomes
Spliceosomes

  • snRNPs

    • Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins


Introns
Introns????

  • Regulation

  • One gene can code for alternate polypeptides

  • Evolution

    • Domains – structural and functional regions





Ribosomes
Ribosomes

  • Small subunit

  • Large subunit

    • P site (peptidyl-tRNA)

    • A site (Aminoacyl-tRNA)

    • E site (Exit site)







Point mutation1
Point Mutation

  • Base Pair Insertion or Deletion

    • Frameshift

  • Missense – new AA

  • Nonsense – stop


Point mutation2
Point Mutation

  • Base Pair Substitution