Pronoun Case • Review: What are pronouns? • Case: system that shows how words are related to one another in a sentence. • Three Cases in English: • Subjective • Objective • Possessive
Rules • A pronoun is in the subjective case when it acts as the doer in a sentence (the subject) • Mary and I were the first to complete our science experiment. • A pronoun is in the objective case when it functions as a direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, or the object of an infinitive. • I saw him yesterday. (Direct object—I saw whom?) • Tommy gave me the letter. (Indirect object—Tommy gave the letter to whom?) • Most of them came to the party. (Object of the preposition—Most of whom?)
Rules, cont. • A pronoun is in the possessive case when it modifies a noun—shows ownership. • That is her book. • I found my hat. • I took a ride in their car. • The case of a pronoun is determined by its function in the sentence. • The man whom I saw was laughing. • (Did the “whom” do the seeing? No, he was seen. The person saw him). • We have great respect for whomeveris ethical. • (Whom do we have respect for? We have respect for him).
Rules, cont. • After than or as,introducing an incomplete construction, complete the sentence in your head to help you determine the appropriate pronoun. • Nobody was as well prepared as he (was prepared). • An appositive should be in the same case as the noun it renames. • Three sophomores, Fred, Jody, and she, received the award. (Sherenames sophomores, the subject of the sentence)
Last one • Use the possessive case of a pronoun before a gerund (ing word that acts as a noun). • I heard about yourwinning the prize. • Examples to do together: • Beth does not have as much time as (I, me). • The guide gave a map to each of (we, us). • Tommy gave the ticket to (whoever, whomever) wanted it.