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OVERVIEW OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH. Dr. Ardini S Raksanagara,dr.,MPH Sri Yusnita Irda Sari, dr., MSc Public Health Department Faculty of Medicine. COURSE: Occupational Health. NUMBER OF CREDIT : 2 SCU ALLOCATED TIME : 14 sessions x 50 minutes SEMESTER : I V COURSE DECRIPTION :

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overview of occupational health


Dr. Ardini S Raksanagara,dr.,MPH

Sri Yusnita Irda Sari, dr., MSc

Public Health Department

Faculty of Medicine

course occupational health
COURSE: Occupational Health


ALLOCATED TIME : 14 sessions x 50 minutes



The subject covers basic concept of occupational health. This course will cover learning subjects Occupational Health e.g. Introduction to Occupational Health, Workplace Hazard and Occupational Diseases.

general learning objectives

This course in occupational health is designed to develop an

awareness and understanding of concept in occupational health


After completing this course the students will able to:

  • Identify some problems in occupational health area
  • understand some diseases related to the occupational environment
  • underline occupational health problems in the future
  • recognize some prevention methods in occupational health problems
  • understand some risk factors related to the occupational health problems
  • practice evaluation in occupational health area
METHOD : mini lecture

MEDIA : multimedia


The course of Occupational Health is presented in 14 sessions.

There are required readings for each session and it might be useful to read it before beginning the course.


Assessment is to be as follows:

  • Mid Semester Examination (30%)
  • Final Examination (30 %)
  • Comprehensive Test (40%)
required and recommended readings
Required and Recommended readings
  • Suma’mur, Higene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja, CV Haji Masagung, Jakarta, 1994
  • Levy & Wegman, Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work Related Disease. Third Edition. Little Broan and Company, Boston / NewYork/Toronto/London,2006
  • Joseph LaDou, Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Third Edition, Lange, USA,2004
  • Rosenstock, Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Second Edition, Saunders, 2005,
  • Depkes RI: Pedoman Pengendalian Nosokomial di Rumah Sakit,2001
  • Bennet,Brachman ed., Hospital Infections,Little Brown,1992
  • WHO, Practical guidelines for infection control in health care facilities, 2003
Danggur Kondarus, Keselamatan Kesehatan Kerja, Litbang Danggur & Partners, 2006,
  • Prüss A, Giroult E, Rushbrook P, eds. Safe Management of Wastes from Health-care Activities. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999.
  • WHO,Pruss,Giroult,Rushbrook, ed., Safe Management of wastes from health-car activities, Geneva, 1999,
  • Health care waste and its safe management : http://www.healthcarewaste
  • Harrington, Occupational Heath , Pocket Consultant, Blackwell Scientific Publications,1987
  • Related website
subject outline

The major goals are: learning and understanding the occupational health concepts

This course is designed to introduce the scientific basis of occupational health, especially the relevant principles and concepts of workplace hazards, toxicology and ergonomics.

The nature of common occupational health hazards and their effect upon the human body are examined. Examples of common protective measures and controls are also reviewed.

topic 1 1 overview of occupational health
Topic 1.1 Overview of Occupational health
  • Occupational Health,
  • Occupational Medicine,
  • Occupational Hygiene
specific learning objectives

The student will be able :

to understand and describe Occupational health problems (C2)

  • Levy & Wegman, Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work Related Disease. Third Edition. Little Broan and Company, Boston / NewYork/Toronto/London,2006. Chapter :1
  • Rosenstock, Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Second Edition, Saunders, 2005. Chapter : 1,2, 11
While hazards may be encountered on the job, for the most part these risks have been controlled.
  • WHO :
  • Workplace fatalities, injuries and illnesses remain at unacceptably high levels and involve an enormous and unnecessary health burden, suffering, and economic loss amounting to 4–5% of GDP.
  • According to the latest ILO estimates for the year 2000 there are 2.0 million work-related deaths per year.
  • WHO estimates that there are only 10-15% of workers who have access to a basic standard of occupational health services.
  • A recent study in the United States estimated that there are 60,300 job-related deaths caused by disease.

Who is Responsible ?

  • The legal responsibility for identifying and correcting health and safety hazards rests on the shoulders of the workplace parties (employers, contractors, owners, workers, supervisors, self-employers persons, owners and suppliers).
Physicians who are employed by management, worker and community right to know about occupational and environmental hazards
defini tion

Occupational Medicine :

-a branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases

- is primarily a branch of preventive medicine, with some therapeutic functions


The Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993, and Regulations require everyone in the workplace to work together to identify and control health and safety hazards.

occupational health
Occupational health
  • Is the multidisciplinary approach to the recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and control of disease, injuries, and adverse health condition resulting from hazardous environmental exposures in the workplace
occupational health1
Occupational Health

is a specialization in Health Science with its practice with the aim for workers to achieve the highest degree of health, physically, mentally and socially with preventive and curative measure against diseases or illnesses caused by work factors or work environment, or common diseases.

occupational health2
Occupational Health
  • ILO & WHO define :
  • As the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupations
occupational health3
Occupational health
  • Is a multidisciplinary activity aimed at :

the protection and promotion of the of workers by preventing and controlling occupational diseases and accidents and by eliminating occupational factors and conditions hazardous to health and safety at work

Occupational health is the total health of all at work
  • Occupational health services is seen as a mechanism to achieve its objective
  • OH  is the recognition of a two way relationship between work and health



  • Work may not only have an adverse impact on health, but it may beneficial to health and well being
  • The health status of the worker will have an impact on work
  • Healthy >< un healthy  more productive
  • Worker with impaired health  less productive, danger to themselves, other workers and the community
occupational health4
Occupational Health

1.Concern with People

2.Concern with Medical Problems

occupational hygiene
Occupational Hygiene
  • is the environmental science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling health hazards in the working environment with the objective of protecting workers’ health and well being and safeguarding the community at large.
occupational hygiene1
Occupational Hygiene
  • Definition from The British Occupational Hygiene Society :

Occupational hygiene is the applied science concerned with identification, measurement, appraisal of risk and control to acceptable standards of physical, chemical and biological factors arising in or from the workplace which may affect the health or well-being of those at work or in the community

industrial hygiene
Industrial Hygiene
  • Is the science and art devoted to the recognition, evaluation and control of those environmental factors or stresses, arising in or from workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being, or significant discomfort and efficiency among workers or among the citizens of community.
occupational health and safety program
Occupational Health and Safety Program

An occupational health and safety program is a specific plan of action to prevent workplace accidents, injuries and occupational diseases.

occupational health and safety program1
Occupational health and safety program

The program is a framework for all occupational health and safety activities, plans and procedures at the place of employment.

work productivity
Work Productivity

Factors related to work productivity:

1.Common Diseases

2.Work Related diseases

3.Nutritional conditions

4.Work Environment

5.Planning and designing the relationships between people and machines

6.Mental or psychological condition

7.Workers welfare

8.Health Promotion

9.Health Facility


  • Work environment
  • Environmental Hazard
the responsibilities of doctor working in industry
The responsibilities of doctor working in industry :
  • knowledge of the work environment
  • pre-placement, periodic and special medical examinations
  • administrative responsibility for nurses and first-aiders
  • treatment
  • health education
  • rehabilitation
  • teaching and research
  • advice to individuals, management, organized labor and safety representatives
  • efficient record keeping
  • group surveillance of those at special risk, e.g canteen staff
  • liase with outside organizations-Government, Universities, other industries
  • reassurance
additional challenges in developing countries
Additional Challenges in Developing Countries
  • Export Hazards
  • Inadequate infrastucture and human resources
  • Transnational problems
  • Relationship between the workplace and the home environment
  • Economic development
  • Occupational and Environmental Health Services and Primary Health Care
disciplines and careers in occupational and environmental health
Disciplines and careers in occupational and environmental health
  • Physicians (preventive medicine, public health, occupational and environmental medicine, aerospace medicine
  • Nurse (occupational health nursing)
  • Public health practitioners (epidemiology, biostatistics, environmental health, health services administration, health education, behavioral sciences, sanitarians, environmental technicians, food safety professionals, hazardous substance professionals
  • Industrial hygienist, ergonomists, environmental engineer
related disciplines
Related disciplines
  • Toxicology
  • Epidemiology
  • Environmental chemistry
  • System engineering
  • Sociology
  • Psychology
  • Anthropology
  • Communication science
  • Environmental law, economics, policy, management
  • Ecology,agronomy, chemistry, physics an geology
next topic
Next topic :