1. The Supreme Court case which established the power of the Court to declare a law unconstitutional was Marbury v. Madison.
2. The Supreme Court declaring a minimum-wage lawunconstitutional is an example of the right of the Court to judicial review.
3. To decrease foreign competition, Alexander Hamilton recommended the use of a protective tariff which would raise the price of imported goods.
4. Alexander Hamilton: Without revenues, a government can have no power . . .He was referring to the government’s power of federal taxation, a power the government lacked under the Articles of Confederation.
5. In 1793 George Washington delivered the Proclamation of Neutrality, stating the United States would not take sides in the war between England and France.
6. High tariffs on imports, paying off the Revolutionary War debt, and creation of a national bank were the financial goals of the Secretary of Treasury of the Washington administration, Alexander Hamilton.
7. One of the causes of the War of 1812 which was a violation of international law was the impressment of American sailors by the British navy.
8. President Washington: • Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none or a very distant relation . . a haven. Our detached and distant situation invites us to pursue . . .our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any foreign power. • In his Farewell Address Washington urged the nation to adhere to a policy of neutrality, which became the basis of our foreign policy until WWII.
9. Americans in the West supported the War of 1812 because the British were encouraging Native Americans to attack American settlements.
10. Washington, D. C., was captured and burned by the British during what war? War of 1812
11. Restrictions upon American merchants and manufacturers led to the United States declaring war upon Britain in 1812.
12. A military conflict between France and England resulted in the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States.
15. Immediate access to the port of New Orleans was a direct benefit of the Louisiana Purchase.
16. The Louisiana Territory was purchased from what country?France
17. The Louisiana Territory is located primarily between what two natural boundaries?The Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains
18.The issue of states’ rights was at the basis of the arguments in favor of the doctrine of nullification in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
19. President Jefferson was particularly interested in the location of rivers in the Louisiana Territory because in the early 1800s rivers proved to be an efficient means of transportation.
20. The United States in 1803 doubled in size as a result of the Louisiana Purchase.
21. The Louisiana Purchase directly benefited western farmers who shipped goods through the port city of New Orleans
22. Jefferson’s economic policy of laissez faire promoted the idea that government should encourage a free market and not heavily tax industrial development.
23. In writing the decision in the case of Marbury v. Madison Chief Justice John Marshall supported the Constitution as the supreme law of the land and established the right of the court to judicial review in declaring acts of Congress unconstitutional if they were contrary to the Constitution.
24. What do these individuals have in common? The Marquis de Lafayette, Bernardo de Galvez, and Frederick von Steuben • All were foreigners who assisted U. S. during Revolution
25. The Battle of Bunker Hill was the first major battle of the American Revolution which proved by the amount of British casualties that the militia could fight against a well-trained army.
26. The Court’s interpretation of the Constitution led to the decision in Marbury v. Madison establishing the right of the Court to judicial review.
27. List the “unalienable rights” found in the Declaration of Independence. • Life • Liberty • and the pursuit of happiness
28. The issue of ratification of the new U. S. Constitution was a major controversy between the Federalists and the Antifederalists from 1787-1789.
29. The battle during the American Revolution which proved to be the turning point of the war was the Battle of Saratoga. It is considered the turning point because it convinced the French to sign a treaty of alliance with the United States.
30. List the three main parts (ideas) of the Declaration of Independence: • Natural rights of man • British wrongs • Independence
31. What 1787 law provided a means by which new states could be admitted to the Union? • Northwest Ordinance
32. According to the Declaration of Independence, what is the purpose of government? • Protection and preservation of individual rights
33. When Burgoyne surrendered to American forces after the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, it became the turning point of the war because France entered the war on the American side.
34. The last major battle of the Revolutionary War resulting in an American victory was fought at Yorktown in 1781. The official end of the war came 2 years later with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
35. The Senate approval of a President’s nominee to the Supreme Court is an example of the system of checks and balances, one of the principles of the U. S. Constitution.
36. The principle of federalism involves the division of power between the state and national governments.
37. Hamilton, Jay, and Madison wrote the essays compiled in The Federalist Papers in support of the ratification of the U. S. Constitution.
38. The Intolerable Acts passed by the British Parliament were in response to the Boston Tea Party and closed the port of Boston along with allowing the quartering of British troops in private homes. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1774 to decide what actions the colonists should take in response to Parliament’s action.
39. The news of the Boston Massacre in 1770 along with the engraving by Paul Revere of the event published in newspapers throughout the colonies increased opposition to British rule.
40. The Sons of Liberty were responsible for organizing the Boston Tea Party.
41. The Mayflower Compact was signed in 1620 to establish a government in Plymouth.
42. The first written Constitution in North America was the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.
43. The growth of representative government in the original 13 colonies was due in part to British neglect of colonial affairs.
44. The idea that the purpose of government was to preserve the rights of the people was a belief strongly promoted by the political philosopher John Locke.
45. The Southern Colonies were founded as a prime agricultural region due to the rich soil available for farming.
46. The Proclamation of 1763 passed by the British Parliament ordered the colonists not to settle in lands west of the Appalachian Mountains; colonists viewed this as unnecessary interference by the British government.
47. Jamestown survived as the first permanent English colony in North America after the introduction of tobacco , a major cash crop.
48. The Magna Cartaof 1215, the Mayflower Compact of 1620, the English Bill of Rights of 1689, and the Declaration of Independence of 1776 are historic documents which influenced the growth of representative government in our country.
49. The Magna Cartaplaced limits upon the power of the monarchy (the government) by stating the king no longer could raise taxes without the approval of the representatives of the people, thereby limiting the power of the monarchy.