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Chapter 17, part B. Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response. The Results of Ag-Ab Binding. Figure 17.9. Antibody titer:. Is the amount of Ab in serum. Figure 17.10. Monoclonal Antibodies. Hybridomas are produced by fusing a cancer cell with an Ab-secreting plasma cells

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chapter 17 part b

Chapter 17, part B

Specific Defenses of the Host:

The Immune Response

antibody titer
Antibody titer:
  • Is the amount of Ab in serum

Figure 17.10

monoclonal antibodies
Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Hybridomas are produced by fusing a cancer cell with an Ab-secreting plasma cells
  • The hybridoma cell culture is immortal and produces monoclonal Abs (Mabs)
  • Immunotoxins: Mabs conjugated with a toxin to target cancer cells
  • Chimeric Mabs: Genetically modified mice that produce Ab with a human constant region
  • Humanized Mabs: Mabs that are mostly human, except for mouse antigen-binding
immune system cells communicate via cytokines
Immune system cells communicate via cytokines
  • Interleukin-1 Stimulates TH cells
  • Interleukin-2 Activates TH, B, TC, and NK cells
  • Interleukin-12 Differentiation of CD4 cells
  • -Interferon Increase activity of macrophages
  • Chemokines Cause leukocytes to move to an infection
cell mediated immunity
Cell-Mediated Immunity
  • Specialized lymphocytes, mostly T cells, respond to intracellular Ags
  • After differentiating in the thymus, T cells migrate to lymphoid tissue
  • T cells differentiate into effector T cells when stimulated by an Ag
  • Some effector T cells become memory cells
pathogens entering the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts pass through
Pathogens entering the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts pass through:
  • M (microfold) cells in Peyer's patches which contains
  • Dendritic cells which are antigen-presenting cells and
  • T cells
t cells
T Cells
  • Helper T Cells (CD4, TH)
    • TH1 Activate cells related to cell-mediated immunity
    • TH2 Activate B cells to produce eosinophils, IgM, and IgE
  • Cytotoxic T Cells (CD8, TC)
    • Destroy target cells with perforin
t cells1
T Cells
  • Delayed Hypersensitivity T Cells (TD)
    • Associated with allergic reaction, transplant rejection, and tuberculin skin test
  • Suppressor T cells (TS)
    • Turn off immune response when Ag no longer present
helper t cells
Helper T Cells

Figure 17.13

nonspecific cells
Nonspecific Cells
  • Activated macrophages: Macrophages stimulated by ingesting Ag or by cytokines
  • Natural killer cells: Lymphocytes that destroy virus-infected cells, tumor

Figure 17.15

t independent antigens
T-independent Antigens

B cell

Figure 17.17