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Your grade: in class and homework, experiment, 3 X exams... Final PowerPoint Presentation
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Your grade: in class and homework, experiment, 3 X exams... Final

Your grade: in class and homework, experiment, 3 X exams... Final

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Your grade: in class and homework, experiment, 3 X exams... Final

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  1. Your grade: in class and homework, experiment, 3 X exams... Final • Plus up to 3 points for discussions

  2. Exam 3 in-class Th 5/5 • take-home will be due Th 4/28

  3. Final exam is cumulative and optional • no take-home for the final exam

  4. Nerves allow us to perceive the environment while the brain integrates the incoming signals to determine an appropriate response. Fig 46.1 Responses can be release of hormones, change in cell activity, or muscle contraction Response

  5. Muscles allow movement

  6. An earthworm: without something to push against, muscles are not much use.

  7. The skeleton, made of bones, gives support Fig 50.34

  8. Bones (connective tissue) are alive

  9. Connections between bones and muscles

  10. Muscles can only contract. Therefore, two muscles are needed for each range of motion. Fig 50.32

  11. 2 nerve signals for every movement: excitatory and inhibitory Fig 50.32

  12. How do muscles contract?

  13. Excitatory neuro-transmitters released by motor neurons cause muscle cells to contract Fig 50.29

  14. Fig 50.25 Muscle cells are comprised of series of sarcomeres.

  15. Fig 50.25 Each sarcomere is a repeating unit of actin and myosin proteins

  16. Fig 50.25 As each sarcomere contracts, the muscle cell contracts

  17. Fig 50.27 ATP provides the energy for myosin movement along the actin

  18. Fig 50.25 How is this regulated?

  19. Neuro-transmitters released at nerve/ muscle junction cause calcium to be released in muscle Fig 50.29

  20. Fig 50.28 A third protein, tropomyosin controls when the muscle contracts

  21. The contraction of muscle cells causes the muscle to contract

  22. muscle contraction animation: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/myosin.html Cadavers and muscles http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdZR4znKRV0

  23. In class 4/14: What is consciousness? Who has it?People? Non-human animals? Plants? Computers? How can you measure consciousness? Is consciousness important?

  24. Your grade: in class and homework, experiment, 3 X exams... Final • Plus up to 3 points for discussions