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Evolution of Exteriors Chapter 6
Traditional Houses • These styles were created in the past and are still being used today. • Most housing styles are in some way traditional. • They have usually been changed in some way over time.
Native American Influence • Native Americans have had a large impact on housing today. • Log hogans (Navajo) • Adobe dwellings (pueblo) • Box like construction • Flat roofs • Projecting roof beams
Spanish Influence • South and Southwest. Climate is very warm and dry. • The traditional aspects will be seen in warmer climates. • Asymmetrical design • Red roof tiles • Arch-shaped windows and doors • Wrought iron décor • Stucco walls- type of plaster applied to exterior walls of house.
Scandinavian • Log cabins are the largest impact Scandinavia plays on housing today. • Small, one story, rectangular • Gable roofs- come to a point in center and slope on both sides.
Dutch Influence • Dutch Colonial- 1st built in New York and Delaware. • Made of fieldstone or brick, sometimes wood. • Gambrel roof- eaves that flare outward. • Dormers- structures that project through the roof and contain windows on the 2nd floor. • Central entrance • Chimney off center • Windows with small panes
German Influence • 1st German-American homes were built in Pennsylvania. • Pennsylvania Dutch Colonial • Gable roofs • Thick fieldstone walls, becoming more elaborate over time. • Roof ledges between 1st and 2nd floor called pent roofs.
French Influence • The French also has played a big role in housing styles today. • French Manor • Symmetrical • Wings on each side of the roof. • Mansard roof on main part of home- type of gambrel roof. Architects name was mansard. • Dormers
French Influence (cont.) • French Provincial- 1st built in New Orleans. (great picture in text) • Sometimes 2 ½ stories tall • Symmetrical • Tops of windows break into eave lines.
English/Colonial Influence • These were usually simple, small and eventually grew larger by additions. • Cape Cod- small, symmetrical, 1 ½ story. • Gable roof • Central entrance & chimney • Several fireplaces • shutters
English/Colonial Influence • Salt Box- type of Cape Cod. • Term comes from the shape of the boxes that were used to store salt at the time. • Lean-to section to the back. • 2-2 ½ stories tall • Steep gable roof, extended to floor in the rear. • Large central chimney • Large windows with small panes
English/Colonial Influence • Garrison- named for it’s early garrisons, or forts. • Overhanging second story- this allows extra space without widening the foundation. • Symmetrical design • Steep gable roof • Windows with small panes
English Influence • Georgian • Simple exterior lines • Windows with small panes • Gable OR Hip roof-sloping ends and sides. Sometimes topped by a flat area with a balustrade- railing. • Tall chimneys at each end of roof. • Ornamentation under the eaves.
Federal Style Housing • Boxlike shape • At least 2 stories tall • Symmetrical • Flat roof surrounded by a balustrade. • Sometimes has a portico- an open space covered with a roof that is supported by columns. • Pediments- decorations that are usually found over the porticoes, windows, or doors. • Segmental or Triangular
Greek Influence • Greek Revival • 2 story portico that is supported by Greek columns and has a large triangular pediment. • Usually large in size • Many government buildings are designed in Greek Revival.
Southern Colonial Influence • Southern Colonial is similar to Greek Revival. • Large, 2-3 story. • Symmetrical • 2 story columns extend across entire front. • Hip or Gable roof. • Often include dormers, shutters, and belvedere-small room on the roof used as a lookout.
Victorian Homes • Victorian houses are named after Queen Victoria of England. • Decorative Trim • High porches • Gable roofs • Tall windows • High ceilings • Turret-small tower • Gingerbread- the extensive decoration on these homes
Modern Houses • Styles developed in the 20th century. • These are relatively new compared to other styles but may have influences from the past. • Bungalow • One story • Low pitched roof • Shingled roof extending beyond the walls • Sometimes a covered porch that is enclosed. • Wood or brick • Windows are set high so furniture can be placed underneath.
Prairie Style • Orgin: Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. • It’s interior space visually flows outdoors through porches, terraces, and windows. • Designed to blend with natural surroundings.
Modern • Ranch; • One-story structure • Often has basement • Low-pitched roof with wide overhang. • Usually made of building materials with energy saving features. • Usually expensive to build because the amount of land it takes up. • Origin: USA; West
Types of Ranch Houses • Hillside Ranch- built on a hill. • Part of the basement is exposed. • Raised Ranch- split entry. • Top part of the basement is above ground. • This allows light to enter the basement.
Modern • Split-level- 3 or 4 levels. • Usually built on sloping lots. • Good for splitting us different areas in the house. Ex. Social, quiet, and service areas. • Not convenient for people with special needs.
Contemporary House • These are the “latest” designs. • Sometimes controversial. • Architectural styles are not traditional. • Unique designs that differ greatly from house to house.
Solar Housing • Active solar heating systems- panels installed in the roof of the building to capture the sun’s energy. Fans move the heated air to areas needed. • Passive solar heating areas- no working parts. They include a design that maximizes use of sun for heating. • Dark colored walls may be used to absorb heat and transfer inside.
Contemporary • Earth-sheltered housing- partially covered with soil. • Energy efficient because the soil is a natural insulation that protects the house. • Some are partly underground or into a hill. • Some use part solar energy also.