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Chapter 12. Stages of Learning. Stages of learning. How did you feel on your first driving lesson? Relaxed? Tense? Confused? What characterized your performance? Error full? Error free? And how about the effort required? Lots? Little?. Stages of learning. Fitts & Posner (1967).

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Stages of Learning


Stages of learning
Stages of learning

  • How did you feel on your first driving lesson?

    • Relaxed? Tense? Confused?

  • What characterized your performance?

    • Error full? Error free?

  • And how about the effort required?

    • Lots? Little?


Stages of learning1
Stages of learning

Fitts & Posner (1967)

Cognitive stage

Autonomous stage

Associative stage

Practice time

  • Cognitive:

  • Learning what the task requires

  • Forming a correct template

  • Highly effortful and drains attention


Stages of learning2
Stages of learning

Fitts & Posner (1967)

Cognitive stage

Autonomous stage

Associative stage

Practice time

  • Associative:

  • Forming an association between the task and relevant environmental cues

  • Fewer & smaller errors

  • Less effortful; less draining on attention


Stages of learning3
Stages of learning

Fitts & Posner (1967)

Cognitive stage

Autonomous stage

Associative stage

Practice time

  • Autonomous:

  • Performance is automatic/habitual

  • Few errors

  • Minimal effort – so now you can drive, talk on the phone, read a map, brush your teeth, floss, and eat chicken wings


What else changes with learning

Rate of learning - Power law of practice

Limb segment coordination – freezing and freeing d. of f.

Intrinsic dynamics

Muscles used

Energy used

Kinematic features of movement

displacement, velocity, acceleration (in that order)

Visual attention

Conscious attention

Error detection and correction

What else changes with learning?

(See pages ???-??? in text – these are well explained)


Expertise
Expertise

  • Average time before attainment

    • Ericsson et al. (1993): 10 years @ about 5 hours p/day, 3-5 days p/wk. Eek.

  • Features of…

    • More sophisticated knowledge

    • Different & more efficient use of vision


Does early success predict later achievement
Does early success predict later achievement?

  • Are those who succeed early the same as those who succeed ultimately?

    • Apparently not…


Does early success predict later achievement1
Does early success predict later achievement?

  • And why not?

    • Ackerman (1992):

Ability type

Stage of learning

General cognitive and broad-content abilities

Cognitive

Perceptual speed abilities

Associative

Perceptual and motor abilities

Autonomous