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Early Design Requirements Development and Assessment for System Autonomy . Systems Engineering Conference Washington DC. Jerrel Stracener , SMU PhD CAPT Daniel P. Burns USNR, SMU PhD Student Rusty Husar , SPAWAR, SMU PhD Student 3-4 April 2014 Chantilly, VA.

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Systems Engineering Conference Washington DC


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    1. Early Design Requirements Development and Assessment for System Autonomy Systems Engineering Conference Washington DC JerrelStracener, SMU PhD CAPT Daniel P. Burns USNR, SMU PhD Student Rusty Husar, SPAWAR, SMU PhD Student 3-4 April 2014 Chantilly, VA

    2. Early Design Requirements (101) My Strategy for winning the Cold War: We Win They Lose….

    3. Current Politico-Military Requirements Do This But Still Do This Maintain national objectives Increased situational awareness Meet National CYBER Challenges & Demands Protect commercial shipping lanes and interests abroad • Cut Defense Budgets • Do more with less • Reduce Sustainment & Manpower • Use more Systems Autonomy • Move to the Cloud

    4. Who is Moving to the Cloud? • Intelligence Community • IC Information Technology Enterprise • IC Cloud Hosting Environment • Department of Defense • Joint Information Environment • DoD Core Data Centers & DoD Cloud Hosting Environment • Department of Navy • OPNAV – Task Force Cloud • N2/N6 Navy TENCAP R&D functional lead • ONI – Maritime ISR Enterprise • NCDOC – Naval Cyber Cloud Navy is “All-In” Working Across Interagency Partners to Execute the Movement to the Cloud

    5. MIW FORCEnet ASW IBGWN SUW Cloud Enabled Common Operating Picture 100011100110011010101010101010011110010010101001010 1010101010101010011110010010111001010001010 001101011101010100101010111101000011110001111001011101011100 010101000110101110101010010101011110100001111000111100101110101110001010 011001111000010101000110101110101010010101011110100001111000111100101110101110 0111100101110101110001010 101000011110001111001011101011100010100011 10100001111000111100101110101110001010 10100001111000111100101110101110001010001111100000111110101

    6. Navy Approach for Unmanned Systems A Maritime and Littoral force that integrates manned and Unmanned Systems (US) to increase capability across the full spectrum of Naval missions while remaining fiscally achievable. - CNO statement during June 2009 UxS CEB

    7. Mission Autonomy “Recommendation 4: The Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition (ASN(RD&A)) should mandate that level of mission autonomy be included as a required up-front design trade-off in all unmanned vehicle system development contracts.” Committee on Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations Naval Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council of the National Science Academies

    8. Autonomy vs. Automation • Automation, autonomy, full autonomy – these terms are not synonymous • Autonomy is a critical, yet potentially controversial attribute of unmanned systems • From the US NAVY CNO • what is frequently referred to as a “level of autonomy” is a combination of human interaction and machineautomation • Not fully understanding autonomy has hindered development of unmanned systems by the Navy • The degree of machine automation is not as easily categorized • range of increasingly complex, computer-generated and computer-executed tasks

    9. Defining Levels of Autonomy “Review the strategy for future development of autonomy in unmanned systems, including "sense and avoid" technology. Project the likely timeframe for development of full autonomy." • Defining Levels of Autonomy (LOA) in a simple, useable form has proven a difficult task • No single scale has been found acceptable • Autonomy – Automation: Often interchanged • Intuitively, LOA could be characterized by position on a linear axis with manual operation at one end and full automation at the other • Intermediate levels of one scale often seem unrelated to those of another • Therefore, we propose that our discussion of autonomy be broken down into descriptions of human interaction and system automation

    10. Sheridan Levels of Autonomy

    11. AGILE and Rapid IT Development Initiatives • Current AGILE  and RAPID Information Technology (IT) programs drive the acceleration in the development of unmanned and autonomous systems and stress conventional development frameworks

    12. System Autonomy Human Interaction “level of autonomy” is a combination of human interaction and machine automation Q1 Q2 Machine Automation Q4 Q3

    13. “level of autonomy” is a combination of human interaction and machine automation Levels of System Autonomy (SA) support or exceed Mission Operation Needs F[SA] = F[MA] + F[HI] Human Interaction MCT Machine Automation Levels of System Autonomy (SA) DOES NOT support Mission Operation Needs SA

    14. System Autonomy treated as a vector • Scalar component - SA= √(MA^2+HI^2) • SA represents system capability • Angular component - Ψ= tan-1⁡[MA/HI] • Ψ represents technology base Human Interaction ψ – technology angle Tele-operation MCT set to 1 SA Machine Automation Android

    15. Use Story for Early Design Requirements Development and Assessment for System Autonomy

    16. Arctic Territorial Claims Retreating Ice Cap Opens Territorial Boundary Claims Establishing Eminent Domain Nationalizes Natural Resources

    17. Complex System of Underwater Autonomous Systems Illustrative Concept #1 SEABOX Candidate Large Displacement UUV as transit and deployment platform deploys quantity 8 SEADART ocean survey UUVs. Under development. SEADART Candidate surveillance, reconnaissance and data gathering (ISR) UUVs. Mature proven design in wide use Speed - 6 knot, endurance – 45 days, side scan sonar swath 12 meters Estimated transit 7 days Estimated ocean survey – 21 days Speed - 5 knot, endurance – 5 days, side scan sonar swath 4 meters

    18. Complex System of Underwater Autonomous Systems Illustrative Concept #1 SEAHORSE Candidate Large Displacement UUV as transit and deployment platform deploys quantity 48 SEASWARM ocean survey UUVs. Mature proven design in wide use SEASWARM Candidate surveillance, reconnaissance and data gathering (ISR) UUVs. Under development Speed - 10 knot, endurance – 40 days, side scan sonar swath 8 meters Estimated transit 4 days Estimated ocean survey – 22 days Speed - 3 knot, endurance – 3/4 days, side scan sonar swath 4 meters Develops an underwater collaborative network to perform ocean survey

    19. Mission Timeline • Develop time line for each candidate • Mission phases are very similar to ocean surveys done be UUVs • Outline SA assessments used in very early AoA, CONOPS and design concept phases

    20. Summary • Autonomous systems are a complex integration of human intelligence supervising machine automation to adapt to unforeseen events encountered during operations • Missions are becoming more complex and spiraling the need for ever-increasing autonomous systems • An algorithmic relationship between the two major system components, human supervisor and unmanned machines, provides a tradeoff study capability to define requirements and assess complex architectures during early development phases • DoD’ssignificant use of Complex Autonomous systems to provide • Situational awareness data • Battegroup coordination • Mission execution • Current economic environments creates greater dependencies on complex adaptive systems to perform ISR and execute missions

    21. ?? QUESTIONS ??