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Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Prince Norah bint Abdul Rahman University College of Computer Since and Information System NET331. Network layer (1). T.Najah AlSubaie. Introduction. The physical and data link layers of a network operate locally.

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network layer 1

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  • Prince Norah bint Abdul Rahman University
  • College of Computer Since and Information System
  • NET331

Network layer(1)


  • The physical and data link layers of a network operate locally.
  • These two layers are jointly responsible for data delivery on the network from one node to the next.
need for network layer
Need for Network Layer
  • To solve the problem of delivery through several links, the network layer was designed.
  • The network layer is responsible for host-to-host delivery and for routing the packets through the routers.
need for network layer1
Need for Network Layer
  • The network layer at the router is responsible for routing the packet.
  • When a packet arrives, the router consults its routing table and finds the link from which the packet must be sent.
  • The packet, after some changes in the header, with the routing information is passed to the data link layer again.
  • The network layer at the destination is responsible for address verification; it makes sure that the destination address on the packet is the same as the address of the host.
internet as a datagram network
Internet as a Datagram Network
  • The Internet, at the network layer, is a packet switched network.
  • In the packet-switched network, the message needs to be divided into packets of fixed or variable size.
  • The size of the packet is determined by the network and the governing protocol.
  • When a switch receives a packet, no matter what is the source or destination, the packet must wait if there are other packets being processed.
packet switching networks
Packet Switching Networks
  • Packet switching uses either the virtual circuit approach or the datagram approach.
datagram networks
Datagram Networks
  • In a datagram network, each packet is treated independently of all others. Even if a packet is part of a multi packet transmission, the network treats it as though it existed alone.
  • Packets in this approach are referred to as datagrams.
routing table
Routing Table
  • In this type of network, each switch has a routing table which is based on the destination address.
  • The routing tables are dynamic and are updated periodically.
  • The destination addresses and the corresponding forwarding output ports are recorded in the tables.
destination address
Destination Address
  • Every packet in a datagram network carries a header that contains, among other information, the destination address of the packet.
  • When the switch receives the packet, this destination address is examined; the routing table is consulted to find the corresponding port through which the packet should be forwarded.
  • This address remains the same during the entire journey of the packet.
virtual circuit networks
  • a source and destination need to go through three phases: setup, data transfer, and teardown.
  • In the setup phase, the source and destination use their global addresses to help switches make table entries for the connection.
  • In the teardown phase, the source and destination inform the switches to delete the corresponding entry.
  • Data transfer occurs between these two phases
virtual circuit networks1
  • Setup Phase:
    • In the setup phase, a switch creates an entry for a virtual circuit.
  • Data Transfer Phase:
    • All switches need to have a table entry for this virtual circuit. The table, has four columns for each virtual circuit that is already set up.
  • Teardowil Phase:
    • In this phase, source A, after sending all frames to B, sends a special frame called a teardown request.
    • Destination B responds with a teardown confirmation frame.
    • All switches delete the corresponding entry from their tables.
datagram vs virtual circuit networks
Datagram VS. Virtual circuit networks
  • Efficiency
    • In datagram network, resources are allocated only when there are packets to be transferred.
    • In virtual-circuit network, all packets belonging to the same source and destination travel the same path;
  • Delay:
    • In datagram network, each packet may experience a wait at a switch before it is forwarded. In addition, the delay is not uniform for the packets of a message.
    • In a virtual-circuit network, there is a one-time delay for setup and a one-time delay for teardown. If resources are allocated during the setup phase, there is no wait time for individual packets.
network layer internet protocol
Network Layer: Internet Protocol
  • In the Internet model, the main network protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP)
  • The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the delivery mechanism used by the TCP/IP protocols.
  • IPv4 is an unreliable and connectionless datagram protocol-a best-effort delivery service.
  • The term best-effort means that IPv4 provides no error control or flow control(except for error detection on the header).
  • IPv4 assumes the unreliability of the underlying layers and does its best to get a transmission through to its destination, but with no guarantees.
  • IPv4 is also a connectionless protocol for a packet switching network that uses the datagram approach.
  • This means that each datagram is handled independently, and each datagram can follow a different route to the destination.
  • This implies that datagrams sent by the same source to the same destination could arrive out of order. Also, some could be lost or corrupted during transmission.
  • IPv4 relies on a higher-level protocol to take care of all these problems.
ipv4 datagram format1
IPv4 datagram format
  • A datagram is a variable-length packet consisting of two parts: header and data.
  • The header is 20 to 60 bytes in length and contains information essential to routing.
  • Source address. This 32-bit field defines the IPv4 address of the source.
  • This field must remain unchanged during the time the IPv4 datagram travels from the source host to the destination host.
  • Destination address. This 32-bit field defines the IPv4 address of the destination.
  • This field must remain unchanged during the time the IPv4 datagram travels from the source host to the destination host.
ipv4 datagram format2
IPv4 datagram format
  • Version (VER). This 4-bit field defines the version of the IPv4 protocol.
  • Header length (HLEN). This 4-bit field defines the total length of the datagram header in 4-byte words.
  • Services: an 8-bit field called as service type
    • The first 3 bits are called precedence bits.
      • The precedence defines the priority of the datagram in issues such as congestion.
      • If a router is congested and needs to discard some datagrams, those datagrams with lowest precedence are discarded first.
    • The next 4 bits are called type of service (TOS) bits,
ipv4 datagram format3
IPv4 datagram format
  • TOS bits is a 4-bit subfield with each bit having a special meaning.
  • A bit can be either 0 or 1, and only one of the bits can have the value of 1 in each datagram
  • Identification. This field is used in fragmentation
service type
Service Type

Default types of service

ipv4 datagram format4
IPv4 datagram format
  • Total length:This is a n-bit field that defines the total length (header plus data) of the IPv4 datagram in bytes.
  • To find the length of the data coming from the upper layer, subtract the header length from the total length.
  • The header length can be found by multiplying the value in the HLEN field by 4