Implementing the Core 2.0 Applying the CCSS in Classrooms and Tests • Text Dependent Questions, Writing Expectations, • and the PARCC Assessment David Pook
The PARCC Assessment System A performance-based assessment (PBA) component, administered after approximately 75% of the school year An end of year assessment (EOY) component, administered after approximately 90% of the school year.
The PARCC Assessment SystemThe ELA/Literacy EOYs at each grade level will include 4-5 texts, both literary and informational (including social science/historical, scientific, and technical texts at grades 6-11). A number of short-answer comprehension and vocabulary questions will be associated with each text. 1 out of 4 questions will be based on Academic VocabularyStudents will have approximately 35min/text
Practice Next Generation Test Read Learned Hand’s address. Answer questions 1, 2, and 3 (Part A) Learned Hand handout
Learned Hand Answer Key • Let’s Review and Take Questions
The PARCC Assessment SystemThe ELA/Literacy PBAs at each grade level will include three tasks: a narrative task (50 minutes)a research simulation (85 minutes)and a literary analysis (80 minutes)For each task, students will be asked to read one or more texts, answer several short comprehension and vocabulary questions, and write an essay that requires them to draw evidence from the text(s).
CCSS Aligned Performance Tasks Stems/Models • You have a handout in your packet with sample Writing Task Stems for: • Narrative Writing • Research Writing • Explanatory Writing • Argumentative Writing
ELA Narrative Task Narrative writing will call on students to insert or continue a narrative that stems from an original and authentic complex text. It will prioritize relying on evidence extracted from the story and inferences based on the text to create a sense of continuity as well as harmonize with the original passage.
History/Science Narrative Writing • Narrative writing can also focus on creating a clear and vivid description of a person or event (in history) or a step-by-step investigation into a process/procedure (in science)
Narrative Writing • There are two forms of Narrative writing: narrative story and narrative description. • The narrative story is about real or imagined situations and characters and uses time as its deep structure. Such writing includes the subgenres of creative fiction, as well as memoirs, anecdotes, biographies, and autobiographies. • The narrative description differs from the narrative story in that it is used to create for the reader a vivid impression of a person, phenomenon, event, or procedure under study. • In science, students might write narrative descriptions of step-by-step procedures of investigations so that others can replicate their procedures to test their results. • In history/social studies, students might write narrative descriptions about individuals and events, selecting from their sources only the most relevant information.
Research Simulation The research simulation will ask students to read several texts and synthesize the pertinent information from all of them. The essay will stress that students use relevant evidence drawn from the texts provided to support their analysis in the form of an explanation or argument.
Research Writing • When possible, research should connect to texts selected for close readings, requiring students to closely read and compare and synthesize ideas across multiple texts. One avenue within the Model Content Frameworks is to ask students to extend their analytical writing on a text or texts by gathering additional information as part of a research project. • Through a progression of research tasks, students are called on to present their findings in a variety of modes in informal and formal contexts appropriate to the grade level (e.g., through oral presentations, argumentative or explanatory compositions, or multimedia products).
Analytic Writing • Each grade-level framework addresses more formal, structured analytic writing that either advances an argument or explains an idea. • The Model Content Frameworks are organized with the expectation that students will respond to high-quality, text-dependent prompts about what they have read by framing a debate or informing the reader about what they have learned through writing. • Rigorous, text-dependent questions require students to demonstrate that they can follow the details of what is explicitly stated and make valid claims and inferences that square with the evidence in the text. • These responses can vary in length based on the questions asked and tasks performed, from answering brief questions to crafting multi-paragraph responses in upper grades.
PARCC on Routine Writing Routine writing includes: Taking notes Writing a short summary Learning Logs Answering questions about a text Crafting a summary or an extended response regarding what they have read in ELA, Science, Social Studies and even Math.
Key Take-Away Point The ability to extract and use evidence from texts plays a key role in the CCSS and the PARCC Assessments – evidence that students will have unearthed by answering Text Dependent Questions and incorporated into their Performance Task Responses West Side Network teachers can be prepared for these instructional shifts through understanding the critical role close reading and text dependent questions play in extracting evidence…
SelectingComplex Texts Texts must be evaluated as to whether they meet the grade-band requirements for complexity
MeasuringText Complexity • Quantitative measures look at factors impacting “readability” as measured by particular computer programs. • Qualitative measuresexamine levels of meaning, knowledge demands, language features, text structure, and use of graphics that computers cannot judge. • Reader and Task considers additional “outside” factors that might impact the difficulty of reading the text and guide instruction in the classroom.
Quantitative Measures of Text Complexity • The metrics below give different weightsto the following proxies for semantic and syntactic complexity: • Word Length • Word Frequency • Word Difficulty • Sentence Length • Text Length • Text Cohesion • Research shows thatno metric is better than the others at either predicting text difficulty or student performance on tests • ATOS • Degrees of Reading Power • Flesch Kincaid • Lexile Framework • Reading Maturity Metric • Source Rater
Quantitative Measures and the CCSS • The CCSS include a staircase of increasing text complexityfrom elementary through high school keyed against recalibrated Lexilescores
Quantitative Measures: Process, Strengths and Limitations • Start by performing a quantitative analysis to determine the complexity band level of a text (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-10, or 11-CCR). Quantitative metrics are excellent at situating informational texts, good at offering a starting point for placing narrative fiction, but unable to rate drama and poetry and not helpful for K-1 texts. • Thenturn to qualitative analysis to place a text at the upper, lower, or middle of a complexity band. These measures lie on a continuum and are not grade or band specific, and therefore are most helpful when used in conjunctionwith quantitative measures.
Tools for Selecting Complex Text: Text Complexity Analysis Worksheet
Qualitative Measures of Text Complexity • Because these factors lie on a continuum, measuring them involves judgment about the kind of complexity present.
Using Text Selection to Inform Instruction:Qualitative Analysis Worksheet
Reader and Task Analysis • Finally, there are factors relating to reader and task that should be considered when evaluating the complexity of a text: • Complexity of Content • Cognitive Capacities • Reading Skills • Motivation & Engagement • Prior Knowledge • Tasks and Assessment • Evaluation of these factors plays an important role in helping teachers think through the implications of using a particular text in the classroom and situating it appropriately in a grade band.
Final Recommendation and Real Texts Weighing each measure equally, use professional judgment to factor together the results of the Quantitative, Qualitative, and Reader and Task Analyses to produce a Final Placement Recommendation
Why Sharing Complex TextsMatters • Working with complex text is needed to gain the mature language skills for college & careers. • Giving students only simplified texts robs them of critically important exposure to academic vocabulary • There is no evidence that struggling readers catch up by gradually increasing the length of simpler texts • Therefore, the CCSS specifies “clear sign posts” so all students can “meet the same high standards”
Why Shifting Emphasis to Informational Text Matters • Informational text is the single greatest source for building knowledge base • Unfamiliarity with informational text makes it harder to comprehend than narrative text… • … and creates a significant gap in preparation • Therefore the CCSS specifies 50% of elementary texts should be informational trending to 70% by graduation
Next Steps: Sharing Complex Texts • Use the same tools and real texts discussed earlier in Selecting Complex Texts and Shifting towards Informational Texts for all students. • Offer complex text reading selections that focus on shorter text selections that can be read and re-read closely. • Make sure all readers regardless of their reading ability are exposed to complex text.
Choosing Complex Texts: Summing Up Select Complex Texts ShifttowardsInformationalTexts ShareComplex Texts with All Students
Complex Texts Require Complex Questions • Exams like PARCC, REACH and AP all require students to examine text and extract evidence from that text. • Q. How do we begin having them “see” evidence in a text? • A. Text Dependent Questions
Guidance Creating Text Dependent Questions: Text Dependent Question Types
Tools for Creating Text Dependent Questions: Text Dependent Question Worksheet
Questions for Churchill’s address • Your handout gives you sample questions for Informational Text relevant to Churchill’s address. • You also have Text Dependent Question Types: Literature.
Next Steps for Next School Year • Use the Literacy templates and tools as you plan for August. • Use the Text Complexity and Text Dependent Question tools to help create activities and assignments • Contact Bonita or me if you have additional questions or need help over the summer. • Have a great summer!