Limerick Flying Club. PPL Air Law 4. Question 1. If radio communication is established during an interception but communications in a common language is not possible, which phrase should be pronounced by the intercepting aircraft to request the intercepted aircraft to descend for landing ?
Air Law 4
If radio communication is established during an interception but communications in a common language is not possible, which phrase should be pronounced by the intercepting aircraft to request the intercepted aircraft to descend for landing ?
If radio contact with the intercepting aircraft is established but communication on a common language is not possible, which phrase should be pronounced by the intercepted aircraft to communicate that he is unable to comply with the instructions received ?
Interception : An aircraft equipped with SSR transponder which is intercepted by another aircraft shall immediately, unless otherwise instructed by the appropriate air traffic service unit, select Mode A
AIP. Which part of the AIP contains a list with "Location Indicators"?
(1) An aircraft shall not take-off from or land at any place in the State save at:
(a) an aerodrome licensed under this Order;
(b) an aerodrome otherwise prescribed as suitable by the Authority;
(c) an aerodrome under the control of the Minister for Defence in respect of which the officer in charge of the aerodrome has given his permission for its use by that particular aircraft;
(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article shall not apply when an emergency landing is necessary to ensure the safety of an aircraft.
S.I. No. 355 of 2008
(4) A private aeroplane or an aeroplane used by a flying club, when not in use for instruction in flying, may, unless otherwise directed by the Authority, use a place which is not licensed as an aerodrome or which is not prescribed under subparagraph (b) of paragraph (1) of this Article, provided that the pilot of such an aeroplane shall:
and such use shall not place the owner or occupier of that place under any obligation as to the facilities provided nor is any standard stated or implied in regard to any such facilities.
S.I. No. 355 of 2008
(1) The Authority may grant a licence in respect of an aerodrome in the State, subject to the requirements of the Irish Aviation Authority (Aerodrome Standards) Order, 2008 and to such requirements as are specified by the Authority, authorising its use under such conditions as the Authority thinks fit and specifies in the licence, subject to payment of the fee prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.
S.I. No. 355 of 2008
(1) No person or vehicle shall go on to the movement area of an aerodrome without the permission of the person in charge of the aerodrome and except in accordance with any conditions subject to which the permission is granted.
(2) No vehicle shall go on to or move on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome having an air traffic control unit without the permission of that unit and except in accordance with any conditions subject to which such permission is granted.
(3) Any permission granted for the purpose of this Article may be granted in respect of persons or vehicles generally or in respect of any particular person or vehicle or any class of person or vehicle.
(4) The permission given and the conditions imposed pursuant to paragraph (2) of this Article shall be complied with by the vehicle or persons concerned.
(5) The movement of persons or vehicles, including towed aircraft, on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be controlled by the aerodrome air traffic control unit as necessary to avoid hazard to aircraft landing, taxiing or taking off. Two-way radiotelephony communication facilities shall be provided for the control of vehicles on the manoeuvring area, except where communication by a system of visual signals is deemed to be adequate.
S.I. No. 355 of 2008
(1) This Article shall apply to aircraft and vehicles on any part of the movement area of an aerodrome.
(2) Notwithstanding any air traffic control clearance, it shall remain the duty of the pilot-in-command of an aircraft to take all possible measures to ensure that the aircraft does not collide with any other aircraft or with any vehicle and to ensure as far as possible that injury to persons or damage to objects does not result from jet-efflux or propeller wake effects from that aircraft.
(3) (a) Vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are taking off, landing or taxiing;
(b) Vehiclesshall give way to other vehicles towing aircraft;
(c) Vehiclesshall give way to other vehicles as required by local aerodrome instructions;
(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of (a) (b) and (c) of this paragraph, vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall comply with instructions issued by the aerodrome air traffic control unit.
(4) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this Article, in the case of danger of collision between two aircraft:
(a) if the two aircraft are approaching head-on or approximately so each shall alter its course to the right;
(b) if the two aircraft are on converging courses, the one which has the other on its right shall give way to the other and shall avoid crossing ahead of the other unless well clear of it;
(c) the aircraft which is being overtaken shall have the right of way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep out of the way of the other aircraft by altering its course to the left until that other aircraft has been passed and is clear notwithstanding any change in the relative positions of the two aircraft.
(5) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (b) of paragraph (3) of this Article, a vehicle shall:
(a) overtake another vehicle so that the other vehicle is on the left of the overtaking vehicle;
(b) keep to the left when passing another vehicle which is approaching head-on or approximately so.
(6) Emergency vehicles proceeding to the assistance an aircraft in distress shall be afforded priority over all other surface movement traffic.
S.I. No. 355 of 2008
Aerodrome beacon. Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air.
An aerodrome beacon shall be provided at an aerodrome intended for use at night if one or more of the following conditions exist:
a) aircraft navigate predominantly by visual means;
b) reduced visibilities are frequent; or
c) it is difficult to locate the aerodrome from the air due to surrounding lights or terrain.
The aerodrome beacon shall show either coloured flashes alternating with white flashes, or white flashes only.
The frequency of total flashes shall be from 20 to 30 per minute.
Where used, the coloured flashes emitted by beacons at land aerodromes shall be green, and coloured flashes emitted by beacons at water aerodromes shall be yellow.
In the case of a combined water and land aerodrome, coloured flashes, if used, shall have the colour characteristics of whichever section of the aerodrome is designated as the principal facility.
ICAO ANNEX 14,Chapter 5
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)
The PAPI system shall consist of a wing bar of 4 sharp transition multi-lamp (or paired single lamp) units equally spaced. The system shall be located on the left side of the runway unless it is physically impracticable to do so.
The wing bar of a PAPI shall be constructed and arranged in such a manner that a pilot making an approach will:
a) when on or close to the approach slope, see the two units nearest the runway as red and the two units farthest from the runway as white;
b) when above the approach slope, see the one unit nearest the runway as red and the three units farthest from the runway as white; and when further above the approach slope, see all the units as white; and
c) when below the approach slope, see the three units nearest the runway as red and the unit farthest from the runway as white; and when further below the approach slope, see all the units as red.
ICAO ANNEX 14,Chapter 5
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)
The T-VASIS shall consist of twenty light units symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line in the form of two wing bars of four light units each, with bisecting longitudinal lines of six lights,
The light units shall be constructed and arranged in such a manner that the pilot of an aeroplane during an approach will:
a) when above the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) white, and one, two or three fly-down lights, the more fly-down lights being visible the higher the pilot is above the approach slope;
b) when on the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) white; and
c) when below the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) and one, two or three fly-up lights white, the more fly-up lights being visible the lower the pilot is below the approach slope; and when well below the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) and the three fly-up lights red.
When on or above the approach slope, no light shall be visible from the fly-up light units; when on or below the approach slope, no light shall be visible from the fly-down light units.
ICAO ANNEX 14,Chapter 5
Runway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing variable white, except that:
a) in the case of a displaced threshold, the lights between the beginning of the runway and the displaced threshold shall show red in the approach direction; and
b) a section of the lights 600 m or one-third of the runway length, whichever is the less, at the remote end of the runway from the end at which the take-off run is started may show yellow.
Runway threshold and wing bar lights shall be fixedunidirectional lights showing green in the direction of approach to the runway.
Runway centre line lights shall be fixed lights showing
a) variable white from the threshold to the point 900 m from the runway end;
b) alternate red and variable white from 900 m to 300 m from the runway end; and
c) red from 300 m to the runway end,
except that for runways less than 1800 m in length, the alternate red and variable white lights shall extend from the mid-point of the runway usable for landing to 300 m from the runway end.
Runway end lights shall be fixed unidirectional lights showing red in the direction of the runway.
Stopway lights shall be fixed unidirectional lights showing red in the direction of the runway.
IAA AERODROME LICENSING MEMORANDUM (A.L.M) 002 , 3.6
Taxiway centre line lights on a taxiway other than an exit taxiway and on a runway forming part of a standard taxi-route shall be fixed lights showing green
Taxiway centre line lights on an exit taxiway shall be fixed lights. Alternate taxiway centre line lights shall show green and yellow from their beginning near the runway centre line to the perimeter of the ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area. Where aircraft may follow the centre line light in both directions all the centre line lights shall show green to aircraft approaching the runway.
Taxiway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing blue.
Stop bars installed at a runway-holding position shall be unidirectional and shall show red in the direction of approach to the runway.
Runway guard lights shall consist of yellow lights:
(a) Located at each side of the taxiway. The lights in each unit of shall be illuminated alternately; or
(b) Spaced acrossthe taxiway. Adjacentlights shall be alternately illuminated and alternative lights shall be illuminated in unison.
IAA AERODROME LICENSING MEMORANDUM (A.L.M) 002 , 3.7
A mandatory instruction sign shall be provided to identify a location beyond which an aircraft taxiing or vehicle shall not proceed unless authorised by the aerodrome control tower.
An information sign shall be provided where there is an operational need to identify by a sign, a specific location, or routing (direction or destination) information.
IAA AERODROME LICENSING MEMORANDUM (A.L.M) 002 , 4.7
Clearway A defined rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.
Runway A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft.
Stopway A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of take-off run available prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take off.
ICAO ANNEX 14,Chapter 1, 1.1
Take-off run available (TORA)
The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off.
Take-off distance available (TODA)
The length of the take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if provided.
Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA)
The length of the take-off run available plus the length of the stopway, if provided.
Landing distance available (LDA)
The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.
ICAO ANNEX 14,Chapter 1, 1.1
With effect from 1st January 2003, an aircraft, which is intended to be operated in Class A or Class C airspace and which is not equipped with ACAS (Airborne Collision Avoidance System) shall be equipped with and shall maintain in operation a Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) transponder capable of responding to Mode A interrogations with 4096 codes and Mode C interrogations with Automatic Pressure Altitude Reporting.
An aircraft so equipped but with its transponder temporarily unserviceable may be admitted to Class C airspace only, at the discretion of the ATS Unit responsible for air traffic services provision in that airspace, on an exceptional case by case basis only, provided that the aircraft concerned shall immediately vacate such airspace when so instructed by the ATS unit concerned.
AIPENR 1.6 - 3
Except in cases of Emergency, Unlawful Interference, Radio Failure, pilots shall operate the transponder and select modes and codes in accordance with ATC instructions.
Pilots shall not operate the SSRSPI feature unless requested by ATC
a. Pilots of uncontrolled aircraft operating within the Shannon FIR shall activate their transponder on Modes A and C and select Code 7000 unless’
i. a different code is assigned by ATC, or
ii. circumstances require the use of one of the Special Purpose Codes.
b. The fact that the transponder is set does not mean that the flight is being controlled
c. Pilots are warned of the need for caution when selecting Code 7000 due to the proximity of the International Special Purpose Emergency Codes.
AIPENR 1.6 - 4
The pilot of an aircraft encountering a state of emergency and who has previously been directed by ATC to operate the transponder on a specific code shall maintain this code setting unless otherwise advised by ATC.
In all other circumstances, the transponder shall be set to Mode A code 7700.
A pilot may select Mode A code 7700 whenever he has
specific reason to believe that this would be the best course of action.
AIPENR 1.6 - 4
Unlawful Interference Procedures
Pilots of aircraft in flight subjected to unlawful interference shall endeavour to set the transponder to Mode A Code 7500 to give indication of the situation, unless circumstances warrant the use of Code 7700.
Radio Communication Failure Procedures
The pilot of an aircraft losing two way communications shall set the transponder to Mode A code 7600
AIPENR 1.6 - 4
Prohibited Area - airspace of defined dimensions designated by the appropriate authority above the land areas of the country or territorial waters thereof, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited by such authority;
Restricted Area - an airspace of defined dimensions designated by the appropriate authority above the land areas of a country or the territorial waters thereof, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted by the appropriate authority in accordance with certain specified conditions;
Danger Area - an airspace of dimensions specified by the appropriate ATS authority within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times;
S.I. No. 72 of 2004 Rule 1
AIPENR 5.1 & 5.2
(1) In this Article "munitions of war" means weapons and ammunition designed for use in warfare and includes parts of or for such weapons and ammunition.
(2) (a) Subject to subparagraph (b) of this paragraph—
(i) it shall be unlawful to carry munitions of war on an aircraft;
(ii) it shall be unlawful for a person to take or cause to be taken on board an aircraft, or to deliver or cause to be delivered, for carriage thereon, goods which he knows or has reason to suspect to be munitions of war.
(b) This Article shall not apply to munitions of war taken or carried on board an aircraft which is registered elsewhere than in the State if, under the laws of the state in which the aircraft is registered the munitions of war may be lawfully taken or carried on board for the purpose of ensuring the safety of the aircraft or the persons on board.
(3) (a) Subject to subparagraph (b) of this paragraph, it shall be unlawful for a person to carry or have in his charge on board an aircraft registered in the State, a weapon which is not munitions of war.
(b) A weapon which is not munitions of war may be carried as the baggage of a passenger if it is kept during the flight in a part of the aircraft which is not accessible to passengers and, if it is a firearm, it is not loaded.
S.I. No. 224 of 1973
(1) Dangerous goods shall not be carried in an aircraft save when—
(a) carried with the permission of the Minister and in accordance with any conditions to which such permission may be subject,
(b) carried in accordance with conditions prescribed by a direction under this Order permitting the carriage of such goods in aircraft generally or in any class of aircraft specified in the direction,
(c) carried with the consent of the operator for the purpose of ensuring the safety of the aircraft or the persons on board,
(d) permitted to be carried under the laws of the state in which the aircraft is registered, provided that there is in force in relation to that state an agreement between the State and the government of that state permitting the carriage within the State of such goods in aircraft registered in that state.
(2) (a) Dangerous goods permitted, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article, to be carried in an aircraft shall not be loaded as cargo therein unless—
(i) the consignor of the goods has furnished the operator with particulars in writing of the nature of the goods and of any danger to which they may give rise, and
(ii) the goods (or any container in which they are packed) are (or is) clearly marked so as to indicate any such danger to the person loading them (or it).
(b) The operator shall, before the flight begins, inform the pilot-in-command of the aircraft of—
(i) the presence on the aircraft of dangerous goods,
(ii) any danger to which such goods may give rise, and
(iii) the weight and quantity of such goods.
(3) It shall be unlawful for a person to take or cause to be taken on board an aircraft, or to deliver or cause to be delivered for loading thereon, any goods which he knows or has reason to believe or suspect to be dangerous goods the carriage of which is prohibited by this Article.
(4) In this Article "dangerous goods" means any goods which, by reason of their nature or their proximity to other goods, might endanger the aircraft or persons or things therein.
S.I. No. 224 of 1973
All Met Éireann aeronautical meteorological forecast services are provided by the Central Aviation Office (CAO) based at Shannon Airport.
Forecast Services provided
Met Eireann issues, as routine:
AIP GEN 3.5 - 3
Meteorological self briefing for operators and flight crew members is available via an internet based Meteorological Self Briefing (MSB) system.
This system is available at https://briefing.met.ie/.
To obtain registration on the system, users are required to provide the following data via email to firstname.lastname@example.org:
AIP GEN 3.5 - 4
(1) Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4) of this Article, an aircraft shall not be registered or continue to be registered in the State unless it is wholly owned by:
(a) a citizen of Ireland or a citizen of a member state of the European Union having a place of residence or business in the State, or
(b) a company registered in and having a place of business in the State and having its principal place of business in the State or in another member state of the European Union, whereof not less than two thirds of the directors are citizens of Ireland or of member states of the European Union, or by such citizen and company in combination.
2) An aircraft may be registered in the State subject to the condition that it be managed and operated from a place within the State and based therein or that it be managed and operated by an air transport undertaking holding an Air Operator Certificate issued by the Authority.
4) An aircraft, the ownership of which does not comply with paragraph (1) of this Article, but which is chartered by demise, leased or on hire to, or in course of being acquired under a lease-purchase or a hire-purchase agreement by, a citizen or company such as is referred to in that paragraph, or by such citizen and company in combination, may be registered in the State but such registration shall be subject to any conditions the Authority may deem fit to impose.
SI 634 of 2005
(1) The nationality mark of an aircraft registered in the State shall be the capital letters “EI” and the registration mark of every such aircraft shall be a group of three capital letters.
(2) The nationality mark shall precede the registration mark and the registration mark shall be preceded by a hyphen.
(3) The nationality and registration marks shall be those assigned by the Authority and shall:
(a) be painted on the aircraft or affixed thereto in the manner provided in the Schedule to this Order, and
(b) be inscribed on a plate of fireproof material secured to the aircraft in a prominent position near the main entrance, or in the case of an unmanned free balloon, affixed conspicuously to the exterior of the payload.
(4) The Authority may, at its sole discretion, on receipt of an application to register an aircraft, assign or reserve a registration mark in respect of the aircraft with the serial number concerned.
A registration mark issued or reserved pursuant to this paragraph will be cancelled if the aircraft concerned is not registered within 12 months of the day on which the mark was assigned or reserved.
A registration mark that is reserved for an aircraft shall not be displayed on the aircraft by any person before that mark is assigned to that aircraft.
A registration mark once assigned to an aircraft will not be changed by the Authority otherwise than for one of the following reasons as determined by the Authority:
(a) there is evidence that the mark may give rise to a safety hazard in the operation of that aircraft;
(b) a confusion of aircraft identity for air traffic purposes may reasonably be considered likely to occur;
(c) there is evidence of a security risk to any party arising from the continued use of a particular mark;
(d) the use or continued use of a particular registration mark may reasonably be considered to give rise to embarrassment to any party, including the State, another contracting state or the Authority itself.
SI 634 of 2005
2 (c) Heavier-than-air aircraft
(i) Wings. On heavier-than-air aircraft the marks shall appear once on the lower surface of the wing structure. They shall be located on the left half of the lower surface of the wing structure unless they extend across the whole of the lower surface of the wing structure. So far as is possible the marks shall be located equidistant from the leading and trailing edges of the wings. The tops of the letters and numbers shall be toward the leading edge of the wing.
(ii) Fuselage (or equivalent structure) and vertical surfaces. On heavier-than-air aircraft the marks shall appear either on each side of the fuselage (or equivalent structure) between the wings and the tail surface, or on the upper halves of the vertical tail surfaces. When located on a single vertical tail surface they shall appear on both sides. When located on multi-vertical tail surfaces they shall appear on the outboard sides of the outer surfaces.
3 (c) Heavier-than-air aircraft
(i) Wings. The height of the marks on the wings of heavier-than-air aircraft shall be at least 50 centimetres.
(ii) Fuselage (or equivalent structure), vertical tail surfaces or other structure. The marks on the fuselage (or equivalent structure) and on the vertical tail surfaces or other structure of heavier-than-air aircraft shall be at least 30 centimetres.
SI 634 of 2005
ASDA" (Acceleration Stop Distance Available) is:
Visual aids for navigation - Runway End Lights: The colour of fixed, unidirectional Runway End Lights is
A signalman will ask the pilot to apply parking brakes by the following signals:
"TODA" take-off distance available is:
"Clearway" is defined rectangular area established to:
The STOPWAY is a defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of take-off run available prepared as a suitable area where:
Taxiway centre line lights other than an exit taxiway shall be:
The abbreviation PAPI stands for:
The "PAPI" shall consist of:
In the "PAPI" system the pilot during an approach will see the two units nearest the runway as red and the two units farthest from the runway as white when:
Taxiway edge lights shall be:
Runway end lights shall be:
Runway threshold lights shall be:
Visual aids for navigation - Lights: Runway edge lights shall consist of at least
Which code shall be used on Mode "A" to provide recognition of an aircraft subjected to unlawful interference?
SSR - Transponder: When an aircraft carries a serviceable transponder, the pilot shall operate the transponder