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chapter 2 structure of options markets

Chapter 2: Structure of Options Markets

There weren't many traders at the sharp end over thirty. Eyes flitting between flickering lines of information on four different screens, one ear on the phone, the other on the cries of the colleagues, twelve hours of split-second calculations, judging yourself and being judged on the score at the end of every day. These men and women lived and breathed the market.

Linda Davies

Into the Fire, 1999, p. 34

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

important concepts
Important Concepts
  • Definitions and examples of call and put options
  • Institutional characteristics of options markets
  • Options available for trading
  • Placing an options order
  • The clearinghouse
  • Accessing option price quotations
  • Transaction costs
  • Regulation of options markets
  • Margins and taxes in option transactions

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

slide3
Option terminology
  • price/premium
  • call vs. put
  • exercise price/strike price/striking price
  • expiration date

Everyday examples of options

  • rain check
  • discount coupon
  • airline ticket with cancellation right
  • right to drop a course

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

development of options markets
Development of Options Markets
  • Early origins
  • Put and Call Brokers and Dealers Association
  • Chicago Board Options Exchange, 1973
  • Resurgence of over-the-counter market

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

call options
Call Options
  • Current example
  • Objective of a call buyer – profit from appreciation
  • Moneyness concepts
    • In-the-money
    • Out-of-the-money
    • At-the-money

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

put options
Put Options
  • Current example
  • Objective of a put buyer – lock in stock price
  • Moneyness concepts
    • In-the-money
    • Out-of-the-money
    • At-the-money

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

over the counter options market
Over-the-Counter Options Market
  • Worldwide
  • Credit risk
  • Customized terms
  • Private transactions
  • Unregulated
  • Options on stocks and stock indices, bonds, interest rates, commodities, swaps & currencies

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

organized options trading
Organized Options Trading

The concept of an options exchange

  • Listing Requirements
  • Contract Size
  • Exercise Prices
  • Expiration Dates
  • Position and Exercise Limits

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

options exchanges and trading activity
Options Exchanges and Trading Activity
  • See Table 2.1, p. 30 for options exchanges

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

option traders
Option Traders
  • Market Maker
    • Bid, ask, and bid-ask spread
    • Scalpers, position traders, spreaders
  • Floor Broker
    • Designated primary market makers
    • Dual trading
  • Order Book Official
    • Limit orders
    • Electronic order processing

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

options traders continued
Options Traders (continued)
  • Other Option Trading Systems
    • Specialists
    • Registered options traders
    • Electronic trading systems
  • Off-Floor Option Traders
  • Cost and Profitability of Exchange Membership
    • See Figure 2.1, p. 33 for CBOE seat prices
    • Leasing a seat
    • High risk, stressful work

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

mechanics of trading
Mechanics of Trading
  • Placing an Opening Order
    • Types of orders
  • Role of the Clearinghouse
    • Options Clearing Corporation (OCC)
    • Clearing firms
    • See Figure2.2, p. 35
    • Margin (see Appendix 2.A)
    • Open interest

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

mechanics of trading continued
Mechanics of Trading (continued)
  • Placing an Offsetting Order
    • In the exchange-listed options market
    • In the over-the-counter options market
  • Exercising an Option
    • European vs. American style
    • Assignment
    • Cash settlement

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

option price quotations
Option Price Quotations
  • See web sites of newspapers and options exchanges
  • Problems
    • Delayed information
    • Nonsynchronized prices

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

types of options
Types of Options
  • Stock Options
  • Index Options
  • Currency Options
  • Other Types of Traded Options
    • interest rate options
    • currency options
    • options attached to bonds
    • exotic options
    • warrants, callable bonds, convertible bonds
    • executive options
  • Real Options

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

executive stock options
Executive Stock Options
  • Executive stock options are a form of remuneration issued by a company to its executives
  • They are usually at the money when issued
  • When optionsare exercised the company issues more stock and sells it to the option holder for the strike price

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

executive stock options17
Executive Stock Options
  • They become vested after a period of time (usually 1 to 4 years)
  • They cannot be sold
  • They often last for as long as 10 or 15 years
  • Accounting standards now require the expensing of executive stock options

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

transaction costs in option trading
Transaction Costs in Option Trading
  • Floor Trading and Clearing Fees
  • Commissions
  • Bid-Ask Spread
  • Other Transaction Costs

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

the regulation of options markets
The Regulation of Options Markets
  • Federal regulation
  • Industry regulation
  • Over-the-counter market regulation
  • The issue of which agency has regulatory responsibility has occasionally arisen.

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

appendix 2 a margin requirements
Appendix 2.A: Margin Requirements
  • Definitions
    • Margin
    • Initial margin
    • Maintenance margin
  • Margin Requirements on Stock Transactions
  • Margin Requirements on Option Purchases
  • Margin Requirements on the Uncovered Sale of Options
  • Margin Requirements on Covered Calls

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

appendix 2 b taxation of option transactions
Appendix 2.B: Taxation of Option Transactions
  • Taxation of Long Call Transactions
  • Taxation of Short Call Transactions
  • Taxation of Long Put Transactions
  • Taxation of Short Put Transactions
  • Taxation of Non-Equity Options
  • Wash and Constructive Sales

An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

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An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

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An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.

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An Introduction to Derivatives and Risk Management, 7th ed.